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This article is the third article in the Human Resources for Health journal's feature on the theme of leadership and management in public health. The third article presents a successful application in Mozambique of a leadership development program created by Management Sciences for Health (MSH).

This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. This article describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool.

Background: In Senegal, traditional supervision often focuses more on collection of service statistics than on evaluation of service quality. This approach yields limited information on quality of care and does little to improve providers' competence. In response to this challenge, Management Sciences for Health (MSH) has implemented a program of formative supervision.

Background: East African countries have in the recent past experienced a tremendous increase in the volume of antiretroviral drugs. Capacity to manage these medicines in the region remains limited.

To strengthen Haiti’s primary health care (PHC) system, the country first piloted performance-based financing (PBF) in 1999 and subsequently expanded the approach to most internationally funded non-government organizations. PBF complements support (training and technical assistance).

In 2011, the Malawi Ministry of Health (MOH) implemented an innovative approach (called "Option B+"), in which all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women are eligible for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4 count. Since that time, several countries have adopted the Option B+ policy. Using data collected through routine program supervision, this report is the first to summarize Malawi's experience implementing Option B+ under the direction of the MOH and supported by the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In Malawi, the number of pregnant and breastfeeding women started on ART per quarter increased by 748%, from 1,257 in the second quarter of 2011 (before Option B+ implementation) to 10,663 in the third quarter of 2012 (1 year after implementation). Of the 2,949 women who started ART under Option B+ in the third quarter of 2011 and did not transfer care, 2,267 (77%) continue to receive ART at 12 months; this retention rate is similar to the rate for all adults in the national program. Option B+ is an important innovation that could accelerate progress in Malawi and other countries toward the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV worldwide.

Setting: The National Tuberculosis Programs of Ghana, Viet Nam and the Dominican Republic. Objective: To assess the direct and indirect costs of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment for patients and households.

Background: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, is unaffordable and generally inaccessible in the private sector, the first port of call for most malaria treatment across rural Africa.

Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax Under section 501(c), 527, or 4947(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code  

Year Ended June 30, 2012, drawn from audited financial statements.

Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a component of Strengthening TB and HIV & AIDS Responses in Eastern Uganda (STAR-E), USAID project funded by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

The first edition of the mHealth Compendium, published in November 2012, contains 35 case studies which document a range of mHealth applications. Developed to assist USAID missions access relevant mHealth information, this compendium offers project descriptions, publication references, and contact information for making further inquiries.

Summary Points Expansion of prevention of mother-to-child transmission in resource-limited settings remains a challenge. In many countries, most HIV-exposed infants do not benefit from PMTCT programs, which results in a 30% or more transmission rate.

Letter to the editor  Anna Coutsoudis and colleagues worry that international organisations have too hastily endorsed a strategy to provide lifelong triple antiretroviral therapy (ART), irrespective of CD4 count, to pregnant women with HIV in high-burden countries. This strategy for preventing mother-to-child transmission is called Option B+.

BackgroundThroughout Africa, the private sector plays an important role in malaria treatment complementing formal health services. However this sector is faced by a number of challenges including poor dispensing practices by unqualified staff.

A few underlying facts drove the decision to create a new society for health systems research (HSR). There is growing acknowledgement that health systems performance problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a major impediment to making more rapid progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and ensuring universal health coverage.

As doctors, nurses and public health professionals are promoted into management and leadership positions in resource-poor countries around the world, they are tasked with leading teams and managing drugs and financial and material resources.

Background and methodology: The Standard Days Method (SDM) is a fertility-awareness-based method of family planning that helps users to identify the fertile days of the reproductive cycle (days 8–19). To prevent pregnancy users avoid unprotected sexual intercourse during these days.

Background: The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that strengthening health systems, through improved leadership and management skills of health teams, can contribute to an increase in health-service delivery outcomes. The study was conducted in six provinces in the Republic of Kenya.

As HIV care services continue to scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa, adequate tuberculosis diagnostic capacity is vital to reduce mortality among HIV-infected persons.

This systematic review of 58 observational studies identified hypothetical causal mechanisms explaining the effects of short and long intervals between pregnancies on maternal, perinatal, infant, and child health, and critically examined the scientific evidence for each causal mechanism hypothesized.

PurposeThe purpose of the Community Health Services Costing Tool is to help managers and planners estimate the costs of providing health services at the community level. It can be used for individual community services, packages of services, or for all community services.

TB is a major problem in many countries and consumes significant external and domestic resources.

Tuberculosis is a major cause of adult deaths and places a huge social and financial burden on the people who have the disease, as well as on their families and communities. The economic burden of TB can be a significant drain on a society’s resources and having estimates of the costs is very useful when advocating for funding from governments and/or donors.

Purpose The results and analysis will provide evidence-based data for implementing, scaling-up, and maintaining iCCM activities that will be invaluable for successful funding advocacy, for conducting feasibility/sustainability studies, for assessment of cost-effectiveness, and for planning financing strategies and mechanisms. Description

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