Tuberculosis along the Continuum of HIV Care in a Cohort of Adolescents Living with HIV in Ethiopia
SETTING: Eight health facilities in Ethiopia.
OBJECTIVE: To determine tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and associated factors among adolescents living with the human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV).
DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. Adolescents enrolled in HIV care between January 2005 and 31 December 2013 constituted the study population. The main outcome variable was TB diagnosis during follow-up. Baseline World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage, CD4 count, previous history of TB and use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) were the main independent variables. We estimated TB incidence rates as incident cases per 100 person-years of observation (PYO). Cox regression analysis was used to control for confounders.
RESULTS: Of the 1221 adolescents screened, 1072 were studied; 60.1% were girls. TB incidence rate was 16.32 per 100 person-years of observation (PYO) during pre-antiretroviral therapy (pre-ART) follow-up but declined to 2.25 per 100 PYO after initiation of ART. Advanced WHO clinical stage (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.71, 95%CI 1.69–4.33) and CD4 count <350 cells/μl (aHR 2.28, 95%CI 1.10–4.81) predicted TB incidence in the pre-ART cohort. IPT use was associated with a significant reduction in TB incidence in the ART cohort, but not in the pre-ART group.
CONCLUSION: Although TB was a significant problem in ALHIV, timely administration of ART and IPT had a significant protective effect.