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In Kenyatta National Hospital, a leading hospital in Kenya, over 30% of expenditure is currently allocated to medicines, and this needs to be optimally managed. We used inventory control techniques, ABC (Always, Better, and Control), VEN (Vital, Essential, and Non-essential) and ABC-VEN matrix analyses to study drug expenditure patterns. Of an average of 811 medicine types procured annually, 80% were formulary drugs and 20% were non-formulary. Class A medicines constituted 13.2–14.2% of different medicines procured each year but accounted for an average of 80% of total annual drug expenditure. Class B medicines constituted 15.9–17% of all the drugs procured yearly but accounted for 15% of the annual expenditure, whilst Class C medicines constituted 70% of total medicines procured but only 5% of the total expenditure. Vital and essential medicines consumed the highest percentage of drug expenditure. ABC-VEN categorization showed that an average of 31% of medicine types consumed an average of 85% of total drug expenditure. Therapeutic category and morbidity patterns analysis showed a mismatch between drug expenditure and morbidity patterns in over 85% of the categories. We concluded that Class A medicines are few but consume the largest proportion of hospital drug expenditure. Vital and essential items account for the highest drug expenditure, and need to be carefully managed. ABC-VEN categorization identified medicines where major savings could potentially be made helped by therapeutic category and morbidity pattern analysis. There was a high percentage of non-formulary items, which needs to be addressed. Inventory control techniques should be applied routinely to optimize medicine use within available budgets, especially in low- and middle-income countries.

he Health Care Provider Performance Review (HCPPR) is a comprehensive systematic review of the effectiveness and cost of strategies to improve HCP performance in low- and middle-income countries. We present the HCPPR’s methods, describe methodological and contextual attributes of included studies, and examine time trends of study attributes. We screened 105,299 citations and included 824 reports from 499 studies of 161 intervention strategies. Most strategies had multiple components and were tested by only one study each. Studies were from 79 countries and had diverse methodologies, settings, HCP types, work environments, and health conditions. Training, supervision, and patient and community supports were the most commonly evaluated strategy components. Studies have reported on the efficacy of many strategies to improve HCP performance in LMICs. However, most studies have important methodological limitations.

Achieving the best health outcomes possible requires a well-trained, adequately staffed, equitably distributed, and highly motivated workforce to provide services, especially in challenging circumstances.However, many health facilities in rural and hard-to-reach areas of Kenya lack enough staff to meet the surrounding population’s health care needs. Recognizing the need to est

This study used a mixed methods evaluation to determine the effect of a targeted health insurance scheme on access to affordable quality maternal and child care, and assess implementation fidelity and how this affected programme outcomes. A total of 90 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and five focus group discussions were conducted among respondents from management, facility and community. The scheme achieved high coverage among the target population and reduced the amount paid for antenatal and delivery care; however, there was no effect on service coverage and limited effects on quality of care. Better communication of programme benefits is needed to enhance effects together with integration of such schemes within existing purchasing mechanisms and in financially decentralised health systems.

A retrospective analysis of diagnosis smear results of PBC TB patients in Kampala District registered between January 2012 and December 2015 at 65 TB diagnosis and treatment units (DTUs) was done. Of the 10,404 records, 6551 (63.0%) belonged to PBC TB patients, 3734 (57.0%) of whom were male. From 2012 through 2015, there was a statistically significant increase in PBC TB patients enrolled on anti-TB treatment from 1389 to 2194. The percentage of HIV positive co-infected PBC TB patients diagnosed decreased from 597 (43%) to 890 (40.6%) within same period. Linkage to HIV care improved from 229 (34.4%) in 2012 to 464 (52.1%) in 2015. The treatment success rate for PBC TB patients improved from 69% in 2012 to 75.5% by the end of 2015 with an improvement in the cure rate from 52.3% to 62%. There was a significant decrease in TB related mortality from 8.9 to 6.4%. The proportion of diagnosed PBC TB patients increased from 2012 to 2015. PBC TB patients diagnosed with 3+ smear positivity grading results consistently contributed to the highest proportion of diagnosed PBC TB patients from 2012 to 2015. This could be due to the delay in diagnosis of TB patients because of late presentation of patients to clinics. 

We investigated factors associated with unintended index pregnancy, unmet contraceptive need, future pregnancy intention and current contraceptive use among Malawian women living with HIV in the Option B+ era. Women who tested HIV positive at 4–26 weeks postpartum were enrolled into a cross-sectional study at high-volume under-5 clinics.  We enrolled 578 HIV-positive women between May 2015-May 2016; median maternal age was 28 years (y), median parity was 3 deliveries, and median infant age was 7 weeks. Overall, 41.8% women reported unintended index pregnancy, of whom 35.0% reported unmet contraceptive need and 65.0% contraceptive failure. High prevalence of unintended index pregnancy and unmet contraceptive need among HIV-positive women highlight the need for improved access to contraceptives. To help achieve reproductive goals and elimination of MTCT of HIV, integration of family planning into HIV care should be strengthened to ensure women have timely access to a wide range of family planning methods with low failure risk.

This study examined provider barries to uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) at 67 government health facilities providing tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services across Ethiopia. Clinician impression that ruling out active TB among HIV patients is difficult was found to be a significant barrier to IPT uptake. Continued advancement of IPT relies greatly on improving the ability of providers to determine IPT eligibility and more confidently care for patients on IPT. Improved clinician support and training as well as development of new TB diagnostic technologies could impact IPT utilization among providers.

The primary mode for the spread of TB is person to person, and it is estimated that a person with TB can infect up to 15 individuals each year until that patient starts treatment and is rendered non-infectious. The USAID-funded Challenge TB project implemented a demonstration initiative that provided preventive treatment for household contacts of TB patients.

Request for Proposals RFP-BD-2019-008

Annex A_Vendor Response Format

Annex B_Budget Template

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Annex E.a. DUNS Instructions

Procurement Notice

Management Sciences for Health (MSH) is seeking proposals for technical assistance (TA). This TA is intended to support planned activities under the Sector-Wide Program Management and Monitoring (SWPMM) Operational Plan (OP) under the Health Services Division (HSD), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MOHFW).

Using antiretrovirals (ARVs) as tracer products, we identified the following key practices that may affect supply chain management at the facility level: order verification, actions taken when stock is received, changes in prescription and dispensing due to ARV stock-out, actions to ensure patient adherence, and communication with other affiliated facilities and higher-level supply chain management. We propose a set of indicators to measure these practices.

Since 1971, MSH has worked in more than 150 countries to strengthen health systems and help our partners consistently deliver effective, affordable, and available medicines and services. We lead by supporting and educating, helping people build on what they already know to ultimately take charge of their own development—and their own health.

Year Ended June 30, 2018, drawn from audited financial statements.

The USAID-funded Challenge TB project collaborated with the Ethiopian National TB Control Program (NTP) and regional health bureaus to integrate TB screening into all health service outlets across the country. The intensive support included mentorship of hospital staff by zonal and regional teams, routine check-ins, on-site capacity building, and close follow-up.

Previously, Ethiopia used conventional methods for mycobacteria culture and drug susceptibility testing, which take 4-12 weeks to get results and require sequential procedures for the diagnosis. The recently introduced second-line probe assay (SL-LPA) delivers results in just 24-48 hours, a vast improvement over the conventional method.

The Ethiopian National TB Program (NTP) has made important contributions to the decentralization of multidrug-resistant (MDR) treatment and follow-up sites across the country.

The Technical Support Services Project (TSSP) worked with the Tanzania Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly, and Children (MoHCDGEC) to analyze data to project future health care employment needs, including current and future vacancies, and create a five-year recruitment and staffing plan.

The Leadership Development Program (LDP+) is an experiential approach developed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH). The program enables individuals at all levels of an organization to develop the skills they need to lead, manage, and govern programs; meet challenges; and achieve measurable desired results.