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Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a component of Strengthening TB and HIV & AIDS Responses in Eastern Uganda (STAR-E), USAID project funded by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). LQAS has been implemented in Uganda through a household-focused random sampling survey tool that collects information about household knowledge of health, health behavior, and use of essential services to provide evidence for improving services. LQAS surveys aim to reach people living with HIV, youth, men and women of reproductive age, mothers of infants, and orphans.

LQAS was originally developed and used by the industrial sector to control the quality of output in production processes. As it requires much smaller sample sizes than other survey methods, it is often less expensive. In the 1990s, the World Health Organization recommended the use of LQAS for monitoring immunization programs in low-income countries, and in 2003, the Uganda Ministry of Health and the World Bank introduced LQAS for monitoring key public health indicators in communities.

Starting in 2009, STAR-E led the national rollout of LQAS across Uganda, working with 10 partners to support LQAS in up to 73 of Uganda's 112 districts. STAR-E has institutionalized the LQAS process at the national level by partnering with the Ministry of Local Government, which has taken over national coordination of the process for sustainability. STAR-E created a pool of master trainers to help districts continue to use the LQAS methodology. STAR-E is implemented by an MSH-led consortium of international and Ugandan organizations, and the Liverpool School of Public Health is the key technical partner for LQAS.