Seroprevalence and Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Women of Reproductive Age in Mozambique: A Multilevel Analysis

Journal Article
  • Michael Ekholuenetale
  • Faith Owunari Benebo
  • Amadou Barrow
  • Ashibudike Francis Idebolo
  • Chimezie Igwegbe Nzoputam
Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Sept. 10, 2020. DOI:



Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has continued to be one of the foremost public health problems globally. Even as more people living with the disease can now have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), there are still some regions in the world with high transmission rates. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and individual-, household- and community-level factors associated with HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Mozambique.


We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015 Survey of Indicators on Immunization, Malaria and HIV or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Mozambique. A sample of 4726 women of reproductive age was included in this study. Prevalence was measured in percentage and the factors for HIV infection were examined using a multivariable multilevel logistic regression model. The level of significance was set at P \ 0.05.


The seroprevalence of HIV among women in Mozambique was 10.3% (95% CI 9.2%, 11.6%). Furthermore, women who had two, three and four or more total lifetime number of sex partners were 2.73, 5.61 and 3.95 times as likely to have HIV infection when compared with women with only one lifetime sex partners, respectively. In addition, women of Islam religion had 60% reduction in HIV infection when compared with Christian women (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.16, 0.99). The individual-level model (model B) had the best model fitness with the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC) = 500.87 and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) = 648.88. The variations in the odds of HIV infection across communities (r2 = 9.61 9 10–8; SE = 0.55) and households (r2 = 1.02 9 10–4; SE = 1.02) were estimated. Results from the median odds ratio (MOR = 1.00) did not show any evidence of community and household contextual factors shaping HIV infection. MOR equal to unity (1) indicated that there were no community or household variances given the ICC of 0.0%. At both community and household levels, the explained variances were each 100%. This implied total variances in HIV infection has been explained by the individual-level factors.


In this study, we found that having multiple total lifetime number of sexual partners and religion were predisposing factors for HIV infection at individual woman level. Female headship and wealth quintiles were associated with HIV infection at household level. Community illiteracy, intimate partner violence, poverty and geographical region were associated with HIV infection at community level. Therefore, multifaceted health intervention by stakeholders in the healthcare system will be useful in addressing the multilevel predisposing factors of HIV infection among Mozambican women.