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In 2011, the Malawi Ministry of Health (MOH) implemented an innovative approach (called "Option B+"), in which all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women are eligible for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4 count. Since that time, several countries have adopted the Option B+ policy. Using data collected through routine program supervision, this report is the first to summarize Malawi's experience implementing Option B+ under the direction of the MOH and supported by the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In Malawi, the number of pregnant and breastfeeding women started on ART per quarter increased by 748%, from 1,257 in the second quarter of 2011 (before Option B+ implementation) to 10,663 in the third quarter of 2012 (1 year after implementation). Of the 2,949 women who started ART under Option B+ in the third quarter of 2011 and did not transfer care, 2,267 (77%) continue to receive ART at 12 months; this retention rate is similar to the rate for all adults in the national program. Option B+ is an important innovation that could accelerate progress in Malawi and other countries toward the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV worldwide.

Setting: The National Tuberculosis Programs of Ghana, Viet Nam and the Dominican Republic. Objective: To assess the direct and indirect costs of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment for patients and households.

Background: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, is unaffordable and generally inaccessible in the private sector, the first port of call for most malaria treatment across rural Africa.

Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax Under section 501(c), 527, or 4947(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code  

Year Ended June 30, 2012, drawn from audited financial statements.

Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a component of Strengthening TB and HIV & AIDS Responses in Eastern Uganda (STAR-E), USAID project funded by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

The first edition of the mHealth Compendium, published in November 2012, contains 35 case studies which document a range of mHealth applications. Developed to assist USAID missions access relevant mHealth information, this compendium offers project descriptions, publication references, and contact information for making further inquiries.

Summary Points Expansion of prevention of mother-to-child transmission in resource-limited settings remains a challenge. In many countries, most HIV-exposed infants do not benefit from PMTCT programs, which results in a 30% or more transmission rate.

Letter to the editor  Anna Coutsoudis and colleagues worry that international organisations have too hastily endorsed a strategy to provide lifelong triple antiretroviral therapy (ART), irrespective of CD4 count, to pregnant women with HIV in high-burden countries. This strategy for preventing mother-to-child transmission is called Option B+.

BackgroundThroughout Africa, the private sector plays an important role in malaria treatment complementing formal health services. However this sector is faced by a number of challenges including poor dispensing practices by unqualified staff.

A few underlying facts drove the decision to create a new society for health systems research (HSR). There is growing acknowledgement that health systems performance problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a major impediment to making more rapid progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and ensuring universal health coverage.

As doctors, nurses and public health professionals are promoted into management and leadership positions in resource-poor countries around the world, they are tasked with leading teams and managing drugs and financial and material resources.

Background and methodology: The Standard Days Method (SDM) is a fertility-awareness-based method of family planning that helps users to identify the fertile days of the reproductive cycle (days 8–19). To prevent pregnancy users avoid unprotected sexual intercourse during these days.

Background: The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that strengthening health systems, through improved leadership and management skills of health teams, can contribute to an increase in health-service delivery outcomes. The study was conducted in six provinces in the Republic of Kenya.

As HIV care services continue to scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa, adequate tuberculosis diagnostic capacity is vital to reduce mortality among HIV-infected persons.

This systematic review of 58 observational studies identified hypothetical causal mechanisms explaining the effects of short and long intervals between pregnancies on maternal, perinatal, infant, and child health, and critically examined the scientific evidence for each causal mechanism hypothesized.

Purpose The Cost and Staffing Projection Tool is used to estimate the costs of achieving health worker staffing targets, comprising salaries and pre-service training costs. Description

As part of a collaborative effort by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (USAID/BASICS) Project, MSH conducted a comprehensive analysis of child survival, maternal, newborn and child health, primary health care, and hospital costs in Cambodia.

Mobile health (mHealth) is the provision of health services and information via mobile and wireless technologies. Within Africa the mobile phone has become ubiquitous, making mHealth applications an important tool with which to impact the health of Africans. When applied correctly, mHealth can make real contributions to improved health outcomes.

Twelve Stories of How MSH Is Helping Women and Children around the World

Ms. Doris Ngozi Brendan, the Akwa Ibom State Program Manager, recently wrote a news article describing CUBS’ work to economically empower caregivers of vulnerable children in Nigeria.  This article was published on the Africare website. Africare is one of MSH’s subcontract partners on the CUBS project.

MSH believes that strong health systems are the best way to achieve health for all. In this report, we offer a glimpse of universal health coverage (UHC) as a framework for maximizing health impact.

There is growing awareness that well led and managed global health solutions are required to achieve effective and sustainable health programs, especially at the scale needed to attain Millennium Development Goals and other global targets. This compendium of case studies reviews the current evidence of the impact of leadership and management on health.

Management Sciences for Health’s Building Local Capacity for Delivery of HIV Services in Southern Africa Project (BLC) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have written a series of technical briefs on priority HIV prevention topics.

Prepared by the AIDSTAR-Two project, this report documents the main changes resulting from a regional prevention program designed to meet the sexual health and HIV prevention needs of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia. As part of this program, the “Most Significant Change” approach was used understand the changes generated by the program.

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