National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation



To standardize and improve data collection instruments and practices for monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention programs.


The guide, which consists of a manual with an attached CD-ROM, aims to bring together twenty years of experience in monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs. It summarizes the best practices in the field of surveillance, monitoring and evaluation of national HIV/AIDS programs and recommends options for monitoring and evaluation. It proposes an outline for a sound monitoring and evaluation system, and provides a standard set of indicators along with definitions for key areas of HIV prevention, sexual behavior, condom availability and quality, care and support, mother to child transmission, STI care and prevention, blood safety, etc. There are data collection instruments recommended and provided for each indicator.

Developed by:

The United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the MEASURE Evaluation Project, and repeated consultations with monitoring and evaluation and technical specialists from various countries and institutions, and funding from UNAIDS and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), in 2000.

Intended Users:

Monitoring and evaluation staff and managers at government agencies, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the local, national, regional and project level.


National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation has been field-tested by government agencies, international donor organizations, and NGOs at the national and program levels in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Thailand, and Costa Rica.


The guide is suitable for a variety of organizations. It provides a comprehensive set of indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Some indicators have been updated to ameliorate difficulties with standards used in the past, and others have been developed to address new areas of concern. If used widely and consistently, this guide will allow for greater comparative studies and therefore provide a sounder basis for learning lessons. The guide is especially useful for HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation training programs.


As the guide comes in the format of a manual with a CD-ROM attached, the user-friendliness of the tool depends on the technology the user has at hand to read the CD-ROM and to print the material.

Recommendations for Users:

In proposing indicators, the guide takes into account existing standards and experiences. New indicators are only proposed in those areas where none previously existed, or where country experience suggests that existing indicators are not useful or have been overtaken by the HIV epidemic. The guide also proposes indicators for which the international consensus has already been reached, thus the need to evaluate their appropriateness and utility is considerably reduced – even though this might still be necessary in choosing the particular set of indicators for each program. Some specific indicator sets and data collection instruments are most appropriate for the national level, and others most appropriate for the local level.

Reports and Publications:



It is available in English, French, and Spanish.


Brandon Howard
The University of North Carolina
MEASURE Evaluation Project
123 W. Franklin Street, Suite 304
Chapel Hill, NC 27516-2524
Phone: (919) 966-7482
E-mail: Measure-Evaluation
Project Website: