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In developing countries, particularly in Africa, the provision of health services leans heavily towards today’s epidemics, including HIV and AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. This calls for different approaches to the implementation of interventions from a public health perspective.

Background: Mortality and morbidity among HIV-exposed children are thought to be high in Malawi. We sought to determine mortality and health outcomes of HIV-exposed and unexposed infants within a PMTCT program.

The national scale up of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi is based on a public health approach, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful World Health Organization "DOTS" tuberculosis control framework.

A few underlying facts drove the decision to create a new society for health systems research (HSR). There is growing acknowledgement that health systems performance problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a major impediment to making more rapid progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and ensuring universal health coverage.

Background: Maternal morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected women is a global concern. This study compared mortality and health outcomes of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers at 18–20 months postpartum within routine prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in a rural district in Malawi.

As doctors, nurses and public health professionals are promoted into management and leadership positions in resource-poor countries around the world, they are tasked with leading teams and managing drugs and financial and material resources.

Background and methodology: The Standard Days Method (SDM) is a fertility-awareness-based method of family planning that helps users to identify the fertile days of the reproductive cycle (days 8–19). To prevent pregnancy users avoid unprotected sexual intercourse during these days.

Background: The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that strengthening health systems, through improved leadership and management skills of health teams, can contribute to an increase in health-service delivery outcomes. The study was conducted in six provinces in the Republic of Kenya.

Background: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) remains the most prevalent source of pediatric HIV infection. Most PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV) programs have concentrated monitoring and evaluation efforts on process rather than on outcome indicators. In this paper, we review service data from 28,320 children born to HIV-positive mothers to estimate MTCT rates.

Background: High quality program data is critical for managing, monitoring, and evaluating national HIV treatment programs. By 2009, the Malawi Ministry of Health had initiated more than 270,000 patients on HIV treatment at 377 sites.

As HIV care services continue to scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa, adequate tuberculosis diagnostic capacity is vital to reduce mortality among HIV-infected persons.

This systematic review of 58 observational studies identified hypothetical causal mechanisms explaining the effects of short and long intervals between pregnancies on maternal, perinatal, infant, and child health, and critically examined the scientific evidence for each causal mechanism hypothesized.

Purpose of review: This review focuses on current status, progress, challenges and opportunities in global pharmacovigilance for HIV/AIDS treatment.

Objective: The objective of this review is to produce evidence on the prevalence and trends in the availability of substandard and counterfeit antimicrobials in the global market and its consequences on key public health interventions in developing countries.

In 2004, Malawi began scaling up its national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. Because of limited treatment options, population-level surveillance of acquired human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) is critical to ensuring long-term treatment success. The World Health Organization target for clinic-level HIVDR prevention at 12 months after ART initiation is ≥70%.

Purpose The purpose of the Community Health Services Costing Tool is to help managers and planners estimate the costs of providing health services at the community level. It can be used for individual community services, packages of services, or for all community services. It can be used to calculate the current costs and/or the costs of starting a new program or scaling up an existing one. 

TB is a major problem in many countries and consumes significant external and domestic resources.

Tuberculosis is a major cause of adult deaths and places a huge social and financial burden on the people who have the disease, as well as on their families and communities. The economic burden of TB can be a significant drain on a society’s resources and having estimates of the costs is very useful when advocating for funding from governments and/or donors.

Purpose The results and analysis will provide evidence-based data for implementing, scaling-up, and maintaining iCCM activities that will be invaluable for successful funding advocacy, for conducting feasibility/sustainability studies, for assessment of cost-effectiveness, and for planning financing strategies and mechanisms. Description

Purpose The Cost and Staffing Projection Tool is used to estimate the costs of achieving health worker staffing targets, comprising salaries and pre-service training costs. Description

As part of a collaborative effort by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (USAID/BASICS) Project, MSH conducted a comprehensive analysis of child survival, maternal, newborn and child health, primary health care, and hospital costs in Cambodia.

Multi-Drug Resistant TB is a major problem in many countries. Cases can be difficult to find and hard and expensive to treat. This tool provides a simple way for managers to compare the cost-effectiveness of different diagnostic and treatment strategies (e.g. hospitalized versus ambulatory treatment systems). 

Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) TB patients incur significant costs for seeking and undergoing treatment. It is important to understand these costs to develop appropriate levels of social protection to prevent people from deciding not to seek diagnosis or discontinuing treatment, or from suffering economic hardship as a result of treatment. 

Mobile health (mHealth) is the provision of health services and information via mobile and wireless technologies. Within Africa the mobile phone has become ubiquitous, making mHealth applications an important tool with which to impact the health of Africans. When applied correctly, mHealth can make real contributions to improved health outcomes.

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