The global partnership fighting malaria has witnessed much success in the last 20 years. Malaria is no longer the leading cause of illness and death among children under five, yet multiple challenges remain in the fight. An estimated 445,000 deaths occurred in 2016, compared to 446,000 in 2015, and 91 percent of these deaths occur in Africa. Lack of community awareness about prevention and treatment, a disproportionate impact on women and children, the emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites, and the limited capacity of public and private institutions to use resources effectively make the fight against malaria difficult. The challenges and consequences of malaria are complex and far-reaching for individuals, communities, and health organizations. This malaria fact sheet summarizes multiple paths to prevention and treatment must be followed.