Ethiopia's Ministry of Health: Walking the Talk on Gender Issues

{Photo credit: Warren Zelman, Ethiopia.}Photo credit: Warren Zelman, Ethiopia.

The Gender Directorate’s mandate is to ensure that gender is mainstreamed throughout the ministry of health in Ethiopia. This is a very difficult and important mandate. Building our capacity is the first step to fulfill this responsibility. We must plan, design, advocate, implement and monitor interventions to mainstream gender, and this requires leadership, knowledge, awareness, and skills.

The Leadership, Management & Governance (LMG) Project has contributed significantly to helping us fulfill this mandate by building our capacity in various ways. One of the reasons for the success we have had working with LMG is that they align the technical assistance with our needs and priorities. We are happy to report that so far, we are on target with our collaboration.

- Mrs. Yamerot Andualem, Director of Gender Directorate, Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia

When There’s Political Will, Change is Possible

Efforts to institutionalize gender into the workings of a health ministry are often relegated to a few individuals who don’t have the political support or resources to bring about tangible changes. However when there is strong political will, it is possible for a ministry to take on the task of addressing visible organizational and programmatic gaps that have a pronounced impact on women and girls.

Ethiopia’s National Policy on Women (“Women’s Policy”), formulated in 1993, seeks to mainstream a gender perspective into national institutions by establishing equitable and gender-sensitive public policies, and ensuring that men and women participate on equal terms. Gender mainstreaming is "the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels” (United Nations Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality). The ultimate goal of mainstreaming is to achieve gender equality.

The FMoH formulated a Gender Directorate in 2008 as a way to align policy with practice within the ministry. However as a relatively new directorate, the Gender Directorate faces many challenges in mainstreaming gender within the larger ministry. Some of these challenges include minimal staffing as well as a lack of tools, methodologies, and plans to effectively advocate for the integration of gender into all of the FMOH departments. To overcome these challenges, the Gender Directorate asked USAID's LMG Project to provide technical assistance to build the capacity of the directorate, and to help close these gaps.

Building Capacity within the Gender Directorate

The Gender Directorate was facing a major challenge because of its limited capacity to institutionalize gender within the framework of the Ministry. Technical capacity and know-how was required to identify and use existing programmatic areas to increase equal participation, benefits, and outcomes for men and women by focusing on the needs of both sexes.

Led by Management Sciences for Health (MSH), LMG Project staff worked in collaboration with staff of the Gender Directorate and other stakeholders to chart a course to institutionalize gender into the all Ministry activities through two main activities, the development of a strategic plan, and the preparation of a National Gender Training Manual that offers practical “How-to” guidance on mainstreaming, which assesses the implications of all policies and practices for both men and women, and fully integrates gender concerns into all levels of decision-making within the Ethiopian health system so that men and women benefit equally.

The First Step: A Strategic Plan

To guide the process of mainstreaming gender at all levels of the health system, LMG worked extensively with the gender directorate and various stakeholders to prepare a strategic plan. To help ensure successful implementation of the plan, the Gender Directorate has allocated accountability among staff; begun the process of identifying partners who can help in the implementation; and identified practical indicators and measurements that will facilitate the careful monitoring of the collective progress to plan by all other directorates. The indicators include:

  • Number of regions, federal hospitals and agencies securing funding for gender-related activities
  • Amount of resources allocated for gender structures at all levels of the health sector
  • Existence of gender criteria in supervision checklist
  • Proportion of health sectors performing sex-disaggregated data analysis

The Gender Manual: A How-to for Ethiopian Health Leaders and Managers

The National Gender Training Manual for the health workforce builds on various tools and methodologies adapted from the World Health Organization and other entities that mainstream gender into overall programs in the health sector. The National Gender Training Manual for the health workforce builds on various tools and methodologies adapted from organizations that mainstream gender into overall programs in the health sector. The Gender Directorate drafted the national manual, taking into account the sensitivities and challenges posed by gender training in Ethiopia. To ensure that the gender training is not abstract and complicated, the manual utilizes real-life examples based upon the experiences of Ethiopian health practitioners and clients to promote greater understanding among men and women.  

The Gender Directorate incorporated feedback about the manual from ministry leaders, gender focal points, gender program officers, and representatives of federal agencies and hospitals. The Human Resources Directorate of the Federal Ministry of Health provided additional feedback, after which the Gender Directorate worked in collaboration with the LMG Project to conduct a first round of training of trainers at the federal level.

The gender training sessions are designed to help the Ethiopian workforce at the federal, regional, and woreda (district) levels to:

  • Apply the concept of gender in understanding the overall situation of women in Ethiopia
  • Appreciate gender as a critical factor in the health sector
  • Address misconceptions related to gender issues
  • Gain an understanding of where there are gender issues at various levels and design synergistic interventions to address them
  • Understand fundamental principles for the integration of gender and the different tools which facilitate and accelerate this process

The next steps in the process are to: translate the manual into Amharic; cascade the training manual to regional health bureaus; and evaluate the outcome and impact of use of the manual by health leaders and managers over the next six months. LMG will report on the rollout of the health manual and outcomes of the evaluation later this year on