MSH Publications on HIV

We know that HIV is preventable and that treatment is available that allows people to live full lives, but work remains to ensure that all people who are HIV-infected are aware of their status and can access the services they need on a life-long basis. We are working together as a global community to reach the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals: 

  • 90 percent of people living with HIV diagnosed by 2020
  • 90 percent of diagnosed people on antiretroviral treatment by 2020
  • 90 percent of people in treatment with fully suppressed viral load by 2020

This volume of 101 peer-reviewed journal articles highlights MSH’s long-term commitment responding to the HIV epidemic and includes contributions from MSH staff and our national and international partners, and donors (principally the US Agency for International Development). The papers presented highlight particularly effective innovations for responding to the epidemic and are important contributions to the evidence base of what works in HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and treatment adherence, including systems strengthening innovations. 

Better health system performance begins with inspired and inspiring leadership, sound management, and consistent, transparent governance. Advances must take into consideration central, district, and local environments, with capacity building and accessible technical expertise provided to ensure correct use and assure sustainability.

Journal Articles

Ahmed S, Kim MH, Sugandhi N, Phelps BR, Sabelli R, Diallo MO, Young P, Duncan D, Kellerman SE, et al. Beyond Early Infant Diagnosis: Case Finding Strategies for Identification of HIV-Infected Infants and Children. AIDS. 2013 Nov; 27(supplement 2): S235–245.

Assefa Y, Schouten E, Chimbwandira F, Hermann K, Van Damme W. Nurse Management of HIV-Infected Patients. Lancet. 2010 Sept 25; 376(9746): 1053–54. doi: 10.1016/S0140–6736(10)61487–0.

Bemelmans M, Van Den Akker T, Ford N, Philips M, Zachariah R, Harries A, Schouten E, et al. Providing Universal Access to Antiretroviral Therapy in Thyolo, Malawi through Task Shifting and Decentralization of HIV/AIDS Care. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2010 Dec; 15(12): 1413–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1365–3156.2010.02649.x.

Biru M, Hallström I, Lundqvist P, Jerene D. Rates and Predictors of Attrition among Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia: A Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS One. 2018 Feb 6; 13(2): e0189777.

Biru, M, Lundqvist P, Molla M, Jerene D, Hallström I. Surviving Overwhelming Challenges: Family Caregivers’ Lived Experience of Caring for a Child Diagnosed with HIV and Enrolled in Antiretroviral Treatment in Ethiopia. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing. 2015 Sept 16; 1–18. doi: 10.3109/01460862.2015.1079278.

Boruett P, Kagai D, Njogo S, Nguhiu P, Awuor C, Gitau L, Chalker J, et al. on behalf of International Network on the Rational use of Drugs-Initiative on Adherence to Antiretrovirals (INRUD-IAA). Facility-Level Intervention to Improve Attendance and Adherence among Patients on Anti-Retroviral Treatment in Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study Using Time Series Analysis. BMC Health Services Research. 2013 July 1; 13(242). doi: 10.1186/1472–6963–13–242.

Burua A, Nuwaha F, Waiswa P. Adherence to Standards of Quality HIV/AIDS Care and Antiretroviral Therapy in the West Nile Region of Uganda. BMC Health Services Research. 2014 Nov; 14(521).

Cataldo F, et al. [E Schouten, 10th author]. Exploring the experiences of women and health care workers in the context of PMTCT Option B Plus in Malawi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Dec. 9. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001273.

Chalker J, et al. Developing Standard Methods to Monitor Adherence to Antiretroviral Medicines and Treatment Defaulting in Resource-Poor Settings. Essential Medicines Monitor. 2009: 1: 4–8.

Chalker J, et al. Measuring Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Poor Settings: The Feasibility of Collecting Routine Data for Key Indicators. BMC Health Services Research. 2010 Feb 19; (10)43. doi: 10.1186/1472–6963–10–43.

Chalker J, et al. Urgent Need for Coordination in Adopting Standardized Antiretroviral Adherence Performance Indicators. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2010 Feb; 53(2): 159–161.

Chalker J, Wagner A, Tomson G, Laing R, Johnson K, Wahlstrom R, Ross-Degnan D, on behalf of International Network on the Rational use of Drugs-Initiative on Adherence to Antiretrovirals (INRUD-IAA). Appointment Systems are Essential for Improving Chronic Disease Care in Resource-Poor Settings: Learning from Experiences with HIV Patients in Africa. International Health. 2013; 5(3): 163–165. doi:10.1093/inthealth/iht013.

Chamla D, Mbori-Ngacha D, Newman M, Kellerman SE, et al. Evidence from the Field: Missed Opportunities for Identifying and Linking HIV-Infected Children for Early Initiation of ART. AIDS. 2013 Dec; 27 (supplement 2): S139–46.

Chimbwandira F, Schouten E, et al. Impact of an Innovative Approach to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: Malawi, July 2011–September 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2013 March 1; 62(8): 148–51.

Colvin, Christopher J., Konopka S, Chalker JC, Jonas E, Albertini J, Amzel A, Fogg K. A Systematic Review of Health System Barriers and Enablers for Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women. PLoS One. 2014 Oct; 9(10): e108150. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108150.

Corbell C, Katjitae I, Mengistu A, Kalemeera F, Sagwa E, Mabirizi D, Lates J, Nwokike J, et al. Records Linkage of Electronic Databases for the Assessment of Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2012 Apr; 21(4): 407–14. doi: 10.1002/pds.2252.

Daniel G, Tegegnework H, Demissie T, Reithinger R. Pilot Assessment of Supply Chains for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Commodities for Malaria, Tuberculosis and HIV Infection in Ethiopia. Transactions of the Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2012 Jan; 106(1): 60–62. doi: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2011.09.008.

Essajee SM, Arpadi SM, Dziuban EJ, Gonzalez-Montero R, Heidari S, Jamieson DG, Kellerman S … Walkowiak H et al. Pediatric Treatment 2.0: Ensuring a Holistic Response to Caring for HIV-Exposed and Infected Children. AIDS. 2013 Nov; 27(supplement 2): S215–24.

Fasawe O, Avila C, Shaffer N, Schouten E, Chimbwandira F, Hoos D, Nakakeeto O, De Lay P. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Option B+ for HIV Prevention and Treatment of Mothers and Children in Malawi. PLoS One. 2013 March 12; 8(3): e57778.

Firdu N, Enquselassie F, Jerene D. HIV-Infected Adolescents Have Low Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pan African Medical Journal. 2017 Jun 2; 27(80). doi: 10.11604/pamj.2017.27.80.8544.

Gitau, L, Boruett P, Njogo S, Nguhiu P, Awour C, Kagai D, Chalker J, et al. Implementing Tools to Promote Adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy at Facilities in Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 2014 Oct; 91(10): 353–60.

Gusdal AK, et al. Peer Counselors’ Role in Supporting Patients’ Adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda. AIDS Care. 2011 Feb; 23(6): 657–62. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2010.532531.

Gusdal AK, et al. Voices on Adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda: a Matter of Choice or Simply not an Option? AIDS Care. 2009 Nov; 21(11): 1381–87.

Harries AD, et al. Operational Research in Malawi: Making a Difference with Cotrimoxazole Preventive Therapy in Patients with TB and HIV. BMC Public Health. 2011 July; 11(593). doi: 10.1186/1471–2458–11–593.

Harries AD, et al. Why Did the Scale-Up of HIV Treatment Work? A Case Example from Malawi. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2011 Aug; 57(Supplement 2): S64–67.

Harries AD, Ford N, Jahn A, Schouten EJ, et al. Act Local, Think Global: How the Malawi Experience of Scaling Up Antiretroviral Treatment Has Informed Global Policy. BMC Public Health. 2016 Sept; 16(938). doi: 10.1186/s12889–016–3620-x.

Harries AD, Makombe SD, Schouten EJ, Jahn A, Libamba E, Kamoto K, Chimbwandira F. How Operational Research Influenced the Scale Up of Antiretroviral Therapy in Malawi. Health Care Management Science. 2012 Sep; 15(3): 197–205. doi: 10.1007/s10729–011–9187–2. Epub 2011 Nov 24.

Harries AD, Schouten EJ, Libamba E. Scaling Up Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Poor Settings. Lancet. 2006 Jun 3; 367(9525): 1870–72.

Hedt-Gauthier BL, Tenthani L, Mitchell S, Chimbwandira FM, Makombe S, Chirwa Z, Schouten EJ, Pagano M, Jahn A. Improving Data Quality and Supervision of Antiretroviral Therapy Sites in Malawi: An Application of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling. BMC Health Services Research. 2012 Jul 9; 12(196). doi: 10.1186/1472–6963–12–196.

Hermann K, Van Damme W, Pariyo GW, Schouten E, Assefa Y, Cirera A, Massavon W. Community Health Workers for ART in Sub-Saharan Africa: Learning from Experience – Capitalizing on New Opportunities. Human Resources for Health. 2009; 7(31). doi: 10.1186/1478–4491–7–31.

Hodgson I, Plummer ML, Konopka SN, Colvin CJ, Jonas E, Albertini J, Amzel A, Fogg KP. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women. PLoS One. 2014 Nov; 9(11): e111421. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111421.

Holtz, SA, Thetard R, Konopka SN, Albertini J, Amzel A, Fogg KP. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Reduce Maternal Mortality among HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women. International Journal of MCH and AIDS. 2015; 4(2): 11–24.

Jamieson D, Kellerman SE. The 90 90 90 Strategy to End the HIV Pandemic by 2030: Can the Supply Chain Handle It? Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2016 1 June. 19(1). doi: 10.7448/IAS.19.1.20917.

Jahn A, Harries AD, Schouten EJ, et al. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Malawi. Bulletin of the WHO. 2016 July 27; 94: 772–76. doi:

Jay J, Buse K, Hart M, Wilson D, Marten R, Kellerman S, Odetoyinbo M, Quick JD, et al. Building from the HIV Response toward Universal Health Coverage. 2016 Aug 16. PLoS Medicine. 13 (8): e1002083. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002083.

Jeffery C, Beckworth C, Hadden WC, Ouma J, Lwanga SK, Valadez JJ. Associations with HIV Testing in Uganda: An Analysis of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Database 2003–2012. 2016 Apr. AIDS Care. 28 (4): 519–23. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2015.1112350.

Jerene D, Abebe W, Taye K, Suarez PG, Feleke Y, Hallström I, Ruff AJ. Tuberculosis along the continuum of HIV care in a cohort of adolescents living with HIV in Ethiopia. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2017 Jan 1; 21(1):32–37(6). doi:

Jerene D, Biru M, Teklu A, Rehman T, Ruff A, Wissow L. Factors Promoting and Inhibiting Sustained Impact of a Mental Health Task-Shifting Program for HIV Providers in Ethiopia. Global Mental Health. 2017 Dec 4; 4: e24. doi: 10.1017/gmh.2017.21.

Jerene D, Hiruy N, Jemal I, Gebrekiros W, Anteneh T, Habte D, Melese M, Suarez P, Sangiwa G. The Yield and Feasibility of Integrated Screening for TB, Diabetes and HIV in Four Public Hospitals in Ethiopia. International Health. 2017 Mar 1; 9(2): 100–104.

Jonas A, Sumbi V, Mwinga S, DeKlerk M, Tjituka F, Penney S, Jordan MR, Desta T, Tang AM, Hong SY. HIV Drug Resistance Early Warning Indicators in Namibia with Updated World Health Organization Guidance. PLoS One. 2014 Jul; 9(7): e100539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100539. Available from:

Kellerman SE, Ahmed S, Feeley-Summerl T, Jay JS, Kim M, Koumans E, Lu L, Phelps R, Sugandhi N, Schouten E, et al. Beyond Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission: Keeping HIV-Exposed and HIV-Positive Children Healthy and Alive. AIDS. 2013 Nov; 27 (supplement2): S225–33.

Kellerman SE, Essajee S. HIV Testing for Children in Resource-Limited Settings: What Are We Waiting For? PLoS Medicine. 2010 July 20; 7(7): e1000285. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000285.

Kellerman SE, Jay JS, Quick JD. Is Option B+ the Best Choice? Lancet. 2013 April 13; 381(9874): 1273. doi: 10.1016/S0140–6736(13)60834-X.

Kellerman SE, Sugandhi N. Pediatric AIDS in the Elimination Agenda. PLoS Medicine. 2013 August; 10(8): e1001503. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001503.

Kellerman SE, Sugandhi N, Luo C. Addressing and Improving the Continuum of Care for HIV-Affected Children: Challenges and Solutions. AIDS. 2013 Nov; 27(supplement 2): S135–37.

Ketema AK, Shewangizaw WZ. Assessment of Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV at Debrebrihan Referral Hospital and Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2015 Mar 11; 7: 75–81. doi: 10.2147/HIV.S79328.

Kibret KT, Alemayehu WY, Belaineh GB, Muluken MA. Determinant Factors Associated with Occurrence of Tuberculosis among Adult People Living with HIV after Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation in Addis Ababa Ethiopia: A Case Control Study. PLoS One. 2013 May 21; 8(5): e64488. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064488.

Konings E, Ambaw Y, Dilley K, Gichangi P, Arega T, Crandall B. Implications of Adopting New WHO guidelines for ART Initiation in Ethiopia: Policy and Practice. Bulletin of the WHO. 2012 June 25.

Landes M, van Lettow M, Bedell R, Mayuni I, Chan AK, Tenthani L, Schouten EJ. Mortality and Health Outcomes in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Mothers at 18–20 Months Postpartum in Zomba District, Malawi. PLoS One. 2012 Sept 4; 7(9): e44396.

Landes M, van Lettow M, Chan AK, Mayuni I, Schouten EJ, Bedell RA. Mortality and Health Outcomes of HIV-Exposed and Unexposed Children in a PMTCT Cohort in Malawi. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e47337. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047337.

Larson C, Burn R, Minnick-Sakal A, O’Keefe DM, Kuritsky J. Strategies to Reduce Risks in ARV Supply Chains in the Developing World. Global Health Science and Practice. 2014 Dec 1; 2(4): 395–402.

Majumdar B, Mazaleni N. The Experiences of People Living with HIV/AIDS and of their Direct Informal Caregivers in a Resource-Poor Setting. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2010; 13(20). Available from:–2652–13–20.

Mann M, Mengistu A, Gaeseb J, Sagwa E, Mazibuko G, Babigumira JB, Garrison LP Jr, Stergachis A. Active Surveillance versus Spontaneous Reporting for First-Line Antiretroviral Medicines in Namibia: A Cost-Utility Analysis. Drug Safety. 2016 Sept; 39(9):859–72. doi: 10.1007/s40264–016–0432-y.

Mann, M, Mengistu A, Gaeseb J, Sagwa E, Mazibuko G, Baeten JM, Babigumira JB, Garrison LP, Stergachis A. Sentinel Site Active Surveillance of Safety of First-Line Antiretroviral Medicines in Namibia. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2016 May 2; doi: 10.1002/pds.4022.

Marum E, Conkling M, Kanyanda J, Birungi Gandi S, Byaruhanga R, Alwano MG. HIV Testing Services in Africa: Are They Sustainable? Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 2016 Oct; 13(5): 263–68. doi: 10.1007/s11904–016–0328–6.

Miller V, Nwokike J, Stergachis A. Pharmacovigilance and Global HIV/AIDS. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. 2012 July; 7(4): 299–304.

Modi S, Chiu A, Ng’eno B, Kellerman SE, Sugandhi N, Muhe L. Understanding the Contribution of Common Childhood Illnesses and Opportunistic Infections to Morbidity and Mortality in Children Living with HIV in Resource-Limited Settings. AIDS. 2013 Nov; 27(supplement 2): S159–67.

Mutenda N, Bukowski A, Nitschke AM, Nakanyala T, Hamunime N, Mekonen T, Tjituka F, Mazibuko G, Mwinga S, Mabirizi D, Sagwa E, et al. Assessment of the World Health Organization’s HIV Drug Resistance Early Warning Indicators in Main and Decentralized Outreach Antiretroviral Therapy Sites in Namibia. PLOS One. 2016 Dec 1. 11(12). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166649.

Mwatawala S, Sando D, Malele RS, Moshiro C, Senyael BR, Somi G, Maselle A, Chalker J, Ross-Degnan D. Strengthening the Appointment and Tracking Systems for Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Tanzania: A Strategy to Optimize Adherence to ART. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine. 2012; 2(4): 825–36.

Myers JJ, Maiorana A, Chapman K, Lall R, Kassie N, Persaud N. How the Illicit Drug Economy Contributes to HIV Risk in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care. 2011 Aug 29; 10(6): 396–406.

Nfor E, Kakanda K, Buki G, Kane A, Dongang J. Addressing the Unmet Need for ART among HIV+ Women and Newborns in Cameroon through Strengthening the Supply Chain of PMTCT Commodities. Immunology and Infectious Diseases. 2015; 3(4): 31–40. doi: 10.13189/iid.2015.030401.

Obua C, et al. Multiple ART Programs Create a Dilemma for Providers to Monitor ARV Adherence in Uganda. Open AIDS Journal. 2011 March; 5: 17–24. doi: 10.2174/1874613601105010017.

Phelps BR, Ahmed S, Amzel A, Diallo MO, Jacobs T, Kellerman SE, et al. Linkage, Initiation and Retention of Children in the Antiretroviral Therapy Cascade: An Overview. AIDS. 2013 Nov; 27(supplement 2): S207–13.

Rasschaert F, et al. Positive Spill-Over Effects of ART Scale Up on Wider Health Systems Development: Evidence from Ethiopia and Malawi. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2011 July; 14 (supplement 1): S3.

Rohde JE. Lessons and Myths in the HIV/AIDS Response. Lancet. 2009 Nov 14; 374(9702): 1675.

Rosenberg NE, Schouten E, et al. Improving PMTCT Uptake and Retention Services through Novel Approaches in Peer-Based Family-Supported Care in the Clinic and Community: A 3-Arm Cluster Randomized Trial (PURE Malawi). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2014 Nov 1; 67(Supplement 2):S114–19.

Ross-Degnan D, et al. Measuring Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Poor Settings: The Clinical Validity of Key Indicators. BMC Health Services Research. 2010 Feb 19; 10(42).

Ross-Degnan D, Chalker J, Liana J, Kajoka M, Valimba R, Kimatta S, Dillip A, Vialle-Valentine C, Embrey M, Liebr R, Johnson K. A Group Randomized Trial Using an Appointment System to Improve Adherence to ART at Reproductive and Child Health Clinics Implementing Option B+ in Tanzania. PLoS One, 2017 Sep 28; 12(9): e0184591. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184591.

Saito S, Howard AA, Reid MJ, Elul B, Scardigli A, Verkuijl S, Nyaruhirira AU, Nash D. TB Diagnostic Capacity in Sub-Saharan African HIV Care Settings. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2012 June 22. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182638ec7. Available from:

Schouten EJ, et al. Antiretroviral Drug Supply Challenges in the Era of Scaling Up ART in Malawi. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2011 July; 14(Supplement 1): S4.

Schouten EJ, et al. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and the Health-Related Millennium Development Goals: Time for a Public Health Approach. Lancet. 2011 July 16; 378(9787): 282–84.

Schouten EJ, Jahn A, Chimbwandira F, Harries AD, Van Damme W. Is Option B+ the Best Choice? Lancet. 2013 April 13; 381(9874): 1272–73. doi: 10.1016/S0140–6736(13)60833–8.

Sherr L, Cluver L D, Betancourt T S, Kellerman S E, Richter L M, Desmond C. Evidence of Impact: Health, Psychological and Social Effects of Adult HIV on Children. AIDS. 2014 Jul 1; 28 (supplement 3): S251–59.

Sileshi B, Deyessa N, Girma B, Melese M, Suarez P. Predictors of Mortality among TB-HIV Co-Infected Patients Being Treated for Tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cohort Study. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2013 July 1; 13:297. doi: 10.1186/1471–2334–13–297.

Simon GG. Impacts of Neglected Tropical Disease on Incidence and Progression of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Scientific Links. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2016 Jan 1. 42: 54–57. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.11.006.

Sinunu MA, Schouten EJ, Wadonda-Kabondo N, Kajawo E, Eliya M, Moyo K, Chimbwandira F, Strunin L, Kellerman SE. Evaluating the Impact of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Malawi through Immunization Clinic-Based Surveillance. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 26; 9(6): e100741. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100741.

Sohn AH, Judd A, Mofenson L, Vicari M, Jerene D, Leroy V, Bekker LG, Davies MA. Using Observational Data to Inform HIV Policy Change for Children and Youth. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2018 Aug 15;78 Suppl 1: S22-S26. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001745.

Sugandhi N, Rodrigues J, Kim M, Ahmed S, Amzel A, Tolle M, Dzubien E, Rivadeneira E, Kellerman SE, et al. HIV-Exposed Infants: Rethinking Care for a Lifelong Condition. AIDS. 2013 Nov; 27(supplement 2): S187–95.

Tadesse B, Foster B, Jerene D, Ruff A. Cohort Profile: Improving Treatment of HIV-Infected Ethiopian Children through Better Detection of Treatment Failure in Southern Ethiopia. BMJ Open, 2017 Feb 28; 7(2): e013528. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen–2016–013528.

Tadesse B, et al. (Jerene, D 10th author). High Levels of Dual-Class Drug Resistance in HIV-Infected Children Failing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Southern Ethiopia. Viruses. 2018 Feb 1; 10(2): pii: E60. doi: 10.3390/v10020060.

Telisinghe L, Charalambous S, Topp SM, Herce ME, Hoffmann CJ, Barron P, Schouten EJ, et al. HIV and Tuberculosis in Prisons in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet. 2016 July 14. pii: S0140–6736(16)30578–5. doi: 10.1016/S0140–6736(16)30578–5.

Thokozani K, et al (Schouten E 5th author). Lessons Learned from Option B+ in the Evolution toward Test and Start from Malawi, Cameroon, and the United Republic of Tanzania. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2017 May 1; 75 Suppl 1: S43–S50. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001326.

Thomas JC, Reynolds HW, Alterescu X, Bevc C, Tsegaye A. Improving Referrals and Integrating Family Planning and HIV Services through Organizational Network Strengthening. Health Policy and Planning. 2015 30 June. pii: czv058.

Thomas JC, Reynolds H, Bevc C, Tsegaye A. Integration Opportunities for HIV and Family Planning Services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: An Organizational Network Analysis. BMC Health Services Research. 2014, Jan 18; 14:22.

Tiruneh K, Wasie, B, Gonzalez, H. Sexual Behavior and Vulnerability to HIV Infection among Seasonal Migrant Laborers in Metema District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. BMC Public Health. 2015 Feb 11; 15:122. doi: 10.1186/s12889–015–1468–0.

Tolle MA, Phelps BR, Desmond C, Sugandhi N, Omeogu C, Jamieson D, Ahmed S, Reuben E, Muhe L, Amzel A, Kellerman SE, et al. Delivering Pediatric HIV Care in Resource-Limited Settings: Cost Considerations in an Expanded Response. AIDS. 2013 Dec; 27(supplement): S179–86.

Tomlinson M, Skeen S, Marlow M, Cluver L, Cooper P, Murray L, Mofokeng S, Morley N, Makhetha M, et al. Improving early childhood care and development, HIV-testing, treatment and support, and nutrition in Mokhotlong, Lesotho: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2016 Nov. 1; 17(538). doi: 10.1186/s13063–016–1658–9. Funding from the National Research Foundation, South Africa, and PEPFAR’s OVC Special Initiative.

Torpey K, Mandala J, Kasonde P, Bryan-Mofya G, Bweupe M, Mukundu J, Zimba C, Mwale C, Lumano H, Welsh M. Analysis of HIV Early Infant Diagnosis Data to Estimate Rates of Perinatal HIV transmission in Zambia. PLoS One. 2012 Aug 17; 7(8). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042859.

Tun W, et al. HIV-Related Conspiracy Beliefs and its Relationships with HIV Testing and Unprotected Sex among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa. AIDS Care. 2011 Nov 15; 24(4): 459–67. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2011.617412.

Valadez JJ, Jeffery C, Davis R, Ouma J, Lwanga SK, Moxon S. Putting the C Back into the ABCs: A Multi-Year, Multi-Region Investigation of Condom Use by Ugandan Youths 2003–2010. PLoS One. 2014 Apr; 9(4): e93083. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093083.

Valdez C, Barillas E, Diaz M, Mesa A. Closing the Financial Gap of Antiretroviral and HIV Supplies for Sustainability of HIV National Response in the Dominican Republic. Value in Health. 2015 1 Nov; 18(7): A572. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2015.09.1890.

Valdez C, Barillas E, Espinoza H. Increase ARV Access for PLWHA in Dominican Republic through the Transition from Vertical Supply System to an Integrated National Pharmaceutical System. Value in Health. 2015 1 Nov; 18(7): A575. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2015.09.1905.

van Lettow M, et al (Schouten E 3rd author). Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study in Malawi. Bulletin of the WHO. 2018 Apr; 96(4): 256–65. doi: 10.2471/BLT.17.203265.

van Lettow M, et al. Uptake and Outcomes of a Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Program in Zomba, Malawi. BMC Public Health. 2011 June; 11(426). doi: 10.1186/1471–2458–11–426.

Vickerman P, Platt L, Jolley E, Rhodes T, Kazatchkine MD, Latypov A, et al. Controlling HIV among People who Inject Drugs in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Insights from Modelling. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2014 Nov; 25(6): 1163–73. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.09.013.

Waako PJ, Odoi-Adome R, Obua C, Owino E, Tumwikirize W, Ogwal-Okeng J, Anokbonggo WW, Matowe L, Aupont O. Existing Capacity to Manage Pharmaceuticals and Related Commodities in East Africa: An Assessment with Specific Reference to Antiretroviral Therapy. Human Resources for Health. 2009; 7(21). doi: 10.1186/1478–4491–7–21.

Wadonda-Kabondo N, Hedt BL, van Oosterhout JJ, Moyo K, Limbambala E, Bello G, Chilima B, Schouten E, et al. A Retrospective Survey of HIV Drug Resistance among Patients 1 Year after Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy at 4 Clinics in Malawi. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2012 May; 54 (supplement 4): S355–61. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis004.

Weir SS, et al. From People to Places: Focusing AIDS Prevention Efforts Where It Matters Most. AIDS. 2003 Apr 11; 17(6): 895–903.

Westerlund E, Jerene D, Mulissa Z, Hallström I, Lindtjørn B. Pre-ART Retention in Care and Prevalence of Tuberculosis among HIV-Infected Children at a District Hospital in Southern Ethiopia. BMC Pediatrics. 2014 Oct; 14(250). doi: 10.1186/1471–2431–14–250.

Yang Y, Lewis FM, Kraushaar DL. HIV Transmission from Husbands to Wives in Cambodia: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2013 Apr 24; 15(9): 1115–28.

Zachariah R, et al. Retention and Attrition during the Preparation Phase and after Start of Antiretroviral Treatment in Thyolo, Malawi, and Kibera, Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2011 Aug; 105(8): 421–30.

Zachariah R, et al. Viewpoint: Why Do We Need a Point-Of-Care CD4 Test for Low-Income Countries? Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2011 Jan; 16(1): 37–41. doi: 10.1111/j.1365–3156.2010.02669.x.


Helfenbein S, Severo CA. Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Programs: A Manual for Multisectoral Planning. Boston, MA: Management Sciences for Health (MSH); 2004.

MSH. Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool for HIV/AIDS Environments: A Guide for Strengthening HRM Systems. Boston, MA: MSH; 2003.

MSH and the World Health Organization. Tools for Planning and Developing Human Resources for HIV/AIDS and Other Health Services. Boston, MA: MSH; 2006.

Other (Including MSH Position Papers and Technical Briefs)

Abdallah A, Birse S, Konings E. Innovative Approaches Boost HIV Testing Rates. Malawi District Health System Strengthening and Quality Improvement for Service Delivery Project; January 2018 Technical Brief.

Abdallah SB, Mulot G. Demonstrating Results of the “Responding to MARPS in the MENA Region” Project Using the Most Significant Change Methodology. AIDSTAR-Two Regional Report. 2012 July 8.

Advance Africa Consortium. Family Planning and Reproductive Health in the Context of HIV/AIDS in South Africa: Issues Affecting Family Planning Service Delivery. Arlington, VA: Advance Africa Consortium; Spring 2002.

Fortier E, et al. Strengthening the Involvement, Care and Support of People Living with HIV in the Middle East and North Africa: A Situational Overview. Responding to MARPs in MENA Region Project; 2013.

Issah S, Mchacha I, Puleni P, Abadallah A. Facility-Based Innovations Improve Linkage to HIV Treatment and Care. Malawi District Health System Strengthening and Quality Improvement for Service Delivery Project; January 2018 Technical Brief.

Keene D, Walkowiak H. USAID-Funded Procurement of HIV/AIDS–Related Pharmaceutical Products: Constraints and Options for Improvement. Arlington, VA: Rational Pharmaceutical Management Program, MSH; 2000.

MSH. Achieving Functional HIV/AIDS Services through Strong Community and Management Support. The Manager; 2002.

MSH. Antiretroviral Treatment as Prevention (TasP): Opportunities and Challenges. Technical Brief: The Building Local Capacity for Delivery of HIV Services in Southern Africa Project; 2012 Oct.

MSH. Assessment of Income Generating Activities in Region E, Eastern Cape. Bambisanani Booklet 3. EQUITY Project, South Africa. Boston, MA: MSH; 2001.

MSH. Clinic Supervision Manual. EQUITY Project, South Africa. Boston, MA: MSH; 2003.

MSH. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance with Stronger Health Systems. Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services Program; 2017 Nov 27.

MSH. Country Ownership and Organizational Capacity Building: Beyond Principles to Practices. AIDSTAR-Two Technical Brief No. 4. 2012 May.

MSH. Expediting the Transfer of Funds for HIV/AIDS services. MSH Occasional Papers. 2005; 1: 1–24.

MSH. Financing Sustainable Laboratory Programs in Nigeria: Laboratory Revolving Funds. Nigeria Prevention and Organizational Systems - AIDS Care and Treatment Project; 2016 Oct.

MSH. From the Children’s Mouths: Improvements in the Lives of South African Orphans and Vulnerable Children. Integrated Primary Health Care Project, South Africa. Boston, MA: MSH; N.D.

MSH. Health Systems Strengthening in Action: Creating Sustainable Government Commitment in Kwara State, Nigeria. Nigeria Prevention and Organizational Systems - AIDS Care and Treatment Project; 2016 Oct.

MSH. HIV Prevention Technical Briefs Prepared for the Southern African Development Community. Executive Summary: The Building Local Capacity for Delivery of HIV Services in Southern Africa Project; 2013 Jul.

MSH. HIV Test Kits Listed in the USAID Source and Origin Waiver: Procurement Information Document. Arlington, VA: Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus Program, MSH; 2009. Available

MSH. Improving Dried Blood Spot Transport Logistics for Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV: The SPEEID Model. Nigeria Prevention and Organizational Systems - AIDS Care and Treatment Project; 2016 Oct.

MSH. Improving Retention in HIV Treatment Programs in Nigeria: The STRIDE Strategy. Nigeria Prevention and Organizational Systems - AIDS Care and Treatment Project; 2016 Oct.

MSH. Institutionalizing Government-Led Capacity Strengthening of Human Resources for Health: The CPHCE Model. Nigeria Prevention and Organizational Systems - AIDS Care and Treatment Project; 2016 Oct.

MSH. Integrating STD/HIV Services into Reproductive Health Settings: Strategic and Management Issues. The Manager. 1998; 7(3).

MSH. Mapping, Capacity Assessments, and Surveys: Key Tools to Enhance Strategic Assistance in HIV and AIDS. Technical Brief: The Building Local Capacity for Delivery of HIV Services in Southern Africa Project; May 2013.

MSH. Organizational Capacity Building Framework: A Foundation for Stronger, More Sustainable HIV/AIDS Programs, Organizations & Networks. AIDSTAR-Two Technical Brief No. 2. 2011 Jan.

MSH. Positive Health, Dignity and Prevention: Engaging People Living with HIV in Prevention. Technical Brief: The Building Local Capacity for Delivery of HIV Services in Southern Africa Project; 2012 Oct.

MSH. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV. Technical Brief: The Building Local Capacity for Delivery of HIV Services in Southern Africa Project; 2012 Oct.

MSH. Reversing the AIDS Epidemic through Third-Generation Health Systems: A Call to Action. MSH Position Paper. 2009 Nov 9; 9: i–50.

MSH. Strengthening the Akwa Ibom Health System for Improved HIV Response. Program to Build Leadership and Accountability in Nigeria’s Health System; 2016 Jan 21.

MSH. Strengthening Behavior Change Communication for Prevention. Technical Brief: The Building Local Capacity for Delivery of HIV Services in Southern Africa Project; 2012 Oct.

MSH. Strengthening the Health Workforce for Improved HIV Service Delivery: The Share Strategy. Nigeria Prevention and Organizational Systems - AIDS Care and Treatment Project; 2016 Oct.

MSH. Voluntary Male Medical Circumcision (VMMC) for HIV Prevention. Technical Brief: The Building Local Capacity for Delivery of HIV Services in Southern Africa Project; 2012 Oct.

MSH. Working Toward an AIDS-Free Generation: STAR-E Implementation of Safe Male Circumcision Services. Strengthening TB and AIDS Response – Eastern Region; 2014 Mar.

Mukukye A, Konings E. One-Stop Shop for TB/HIV Services: A Model for Increasing Antiretroviral Therapy Uptake in Uganda. Strengthening TB and HIV & AIDS Responses in Eastern Uganda (STAR-E) Project: Technical Brief, 2017 Jan.

Walkowiak H, Gabra M. A Commodity Management Planning Guide for the Scale-up of HIV Counseling and Testing Services. Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus Program. Arlington, VA: MSH; 2008.

Walsh E, et al. The NGO Communications Guide: A Guide to Developing a Communications Plan for NGOs Working on HIV Prevention Projects in the Middle East and North Africa Region. Responding to MARPs in MENA Region project. 2013 May 15.