women's health

The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and individual-, household- and community-level factors associated with HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Mozambique. We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015 Survey of Indicators on Immunization, Malaria and HIV or AIDS in Mozambique. A sample of 4726 women of reproductive age was included in this study. The seroprevalence of HIV among women in Mozambique was 10.3% (95% CI 9.2%, 11.6%). Furthermore, women who had two, three and four or more total lifetime number of sex partners were 2.73, 5.61 and 3.95 times as likely to have HIV infection when compared with women with only one lifetime sex partners, respectively. In addition, women of Islam religion had 60% reduction in HIV infection when compared with Christian women (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.16, 0.99). Female headship and wealth quintiles were associated with HIV infection at household level. Community illiteracy, intimate partner violence, poverty and geographical region were associated with HIV infection at community level.

This study’s objective was to determine the prevalence of TB among mentally ill patients in Afghanistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five public health facilities and one private facility. All patients in those centers were screened for TB, and the diagnosis of TB was made with GeneXpert or made clinically by a physician. Out of 8,598 patients registered, 8,324 (96.8%) were reached and 8,073 (93.9%) were screened for TB, of whom 1,703 (21.1%) were found to be presumptive TB patients. A total of 275 (16.7%) were diagnosed with all forms of TB, of whom 90.5% were women. The overall prevalence of TB among mentally ill patients was 3,567/100,000—20 times higher than the national incidence rate. TB was independently associated with married and widowed adults, young adults, females, and oral sleep drug users. TB among mentally ill patients is very high, and we recommend that TB care and prevention services be integrated into mental health centers.

Several recent studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse (D&A) of women during childbirth in health facilities. Variations in reported prevalence may be associated with differences in study instruments and data collection methods. This systematic review and comparative analysis of methods aims to aggregate and present lessons learned from published studies that quantified the prevalence of D&A during childbirth.

HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a serious public health problem in Tajikistan and other Central Asian republics, yet relatively few studies have been conducted among PWID in Tajikistan and almost nothing is known about females who inject drugs. This presentation will examine gender differences in HIV status, injection risk behaviors and sex risk behaviors among PWID in Tajikistan.

Improving women’s health throughout the life course will contribute to other post-2015 goals. Conversely, women’s social empowerment will improve health. For this virtuous cycle to occur, the next iteration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has to embrace women’s health and wellbeing as a priority—particularly since indicators of women’s health are those lagging the farthest behind in the current MDGs. Universal health coverage is generally agreed to be an essential means of achieving post-2015 health goals, including addressing inequalities in women’s health care. This article looks at critical factors for designing and implementing universal health coverage to improve women’s health. The authors draw on examples from Afghanistan, Mexico, Thailand, and Rwanda.

Background Secondary infertility is a common, preventable but neglected reproductive health problem in resource-poor countries. This study examines the association of past sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV, bacterial vaginosis, and factors in the obstetric history with secondary infertility and their relative contributions to secondary infertility. Methods

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