health care workers

To determine the yield of tuberculosis (TB) and the prevalence of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) among key populations in the selected hotspot towns of Ethiopia, we undertook cross-sectional implementation research during August 2017-January 2018. A total of 1878 vulnerable people were screened. There was a statistically significant association of active TB cases with previous history of TB (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 11 95% CI, 4.06–29.81), HIV infection (AOR: 7.7 95% CI, 2.24–26.40), and being a health care worker (HCW). The prevalence of TB in key populations was nine times higher than 164/100,000 national estimated prevalence rate. The prevalence of HIV was five times higher than 1.15% of the national survey. The highest yield of TB was among HCWs and a high HIV burden was detected among female sex workers and internal migratory workers. These suggest the need for community and health facility based integrated and enhanced case finding approaches for TB and HIV in hotspot settings.

he Health Care Provider Performance Review (HCPPR) is a comprehensive systematic review of the effectiveness and cost of strategies to improve HCP performance in low- and middle-income countries. We present the HCPPR’s methods, describe methodological and contextual attributes of included studies, and examine time trends of study attributes. We screened 105,299 citations and included 824 reports from 499 studies of 161 intervention strategies. Most strategies had multiple components and were tested by only one study each. Studies were from 79 countries and had diverse methodologies, settings, HCP types, work environments, and health conditions. Training, supervision, and patient and community supports were the most commonly evaluated strategy components. Studies have reported on the efficacy of many strategies to improve HCP performance in LMICs. However, most studies have important methodological limitations.

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