To delineate the prevalence and factors associated with antimicrobial use across six referral hospitals in Tanzania using WHO point prevalence survey (PPS) methodology to inform hospital-specific antimicrobial stewardship programmes, we conducted a cross-sectional analytical study. We analysed the prevalence of antibiotic use by referral hospital, ward, indication and patient characteristics as the main outcomes. We also described adherence to the Tanzania Standard Treatment Guidelines (STG) and WHO’s AWaRe categorisation of antibiotics. Approximately 62.3% of inpatients were prescribed antibiotics, predominantly from the Access group of antibiotics (ceftriaxone, metronidazole or ampicillin–cloxacillin). Empirical use of antibiotics is common, and the Access group of antibiotics is predominantly prescribed in children less than 2 years and patients admitted to surgical and paediatric wards. Lack of utilisation of antimicrobial susceptibility testing services in these hospitals requires urgent interventions. Routine monitoring of antibiotic use is recommended to be part of antibiotic stewardship programmes in Tanzania.

The objective of this study was to measure antimicrobial consumption in Tanzania. From 2017 to 2019, data on all antimicrobials imported into Tanzania were obtained from the Tanzania Medicines and Medical Devices Authority Data, augmented with purchasing data from the Medical Stores Department and data from local manufacturers. Data were collected and analyzed in accordance with the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical and defined daily doses (DDD) methodology. The average DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1,000/D) for all antimicrobials was 80.8 ± 39.35. The DDD/1,000/D declined from 136.41 in 2017 to 54.98 in 2018 and 51.02 in 2019. Doxycycline, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were the most frequently consumed antibiotics during these years, accounting for 20.01, 16.75, and 12.42 DDD/1,000/D, respectively. The majority of antimicrobial consumption in Tanzania occurred in the private sector, with the proportion of private-sector antibiotic consumption increasing annually from 2017 to 2019. The private sector use of antimicrobials is significantly increasing and should be carefully monitored in accordance with national policies. Future work is necessary to increase reporting of antimicrobial consumption patterns in sub-Saharan Africa.

Multigram drug depot systems for extended drug release could transform our capacity to effectively treat patients across a myriad of diseases. For example, tuberculosis (TB) requires multimonth courses of daily multigram doses for treatment. To address the challenge of prolonged dosing for regimens requiring multigram drug dosing, we developed a gastric resident system delivered through the nasogastric route that was capable of safely encapsulating and releasing grams of antibiotics over a period of weeks. Initial preclinical safety and drug release were demonstrated in a swine model with a panel of TB antibiotics. We anticipate multiple applications in the field of infectious diseases, as well as for other indications where multigram depots could impart meaningful benefits to patients, helping maximize adherence to their medication.

Despite Namibia's robust medicine use systems and policies, antibiotic use indicators remain suboptimal. Recent medicine use surveys rank cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin and azithromycin (CAA) among the most used medicines. However, there is rising resistance to CAA (55.9%-96.7%). A quantitative text analysis found that policy and guidelines for antibiotic use in Namibia are not comprehensive and are skewed towards PHCs. Existing policies promote the wide use of CAA antibiotics, which may inadvertently result in their inappropriate use, enhancing resistance rates. This calls for the development of more comprehensive antibiotic guidelines and essential medicine lists in tandem with local antimicrobial resistance patterns. 

People in low-income countries purchase a high proportion of antimicrobials from retail drug shops, both with and without a prescription. Tanzania's accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program includes dispenser training, enforcement of standards, and the legal right to sell selected antimicrobials. We assessed the role of ADDOs in facilitating access to antimicrobials.

Tanzania introduced the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program more than a decade ago. Previous evaluations have generally shown that ADDOs meet defined standards of practice better than non-accredited outlets. However, ADDOs still face challenges with overuse of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARI) and simple diarrhea, which contributes to the emergence of drug resistance. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of ADDO owners and dispensers toward antibiotic dispensing and to learn how accreditation has influenced their dispensing behavior.

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