The tuberculosis(TB) control program of Rwanda is currently phasing in light emitting diode-fluorescent microscopy (LED-FM) as an alternative to Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy. This, alongside the newly introduced Xpert (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is expected to improve diagnosis of TB and detection of rifampicin resistance in patients at health facilities. We assessed the accuracy of smear microscopy and the incremental sensitivity of Xpert at TB laboratories in Rwanda. This was a cross-sectional study involving four laboratories performing ZN and four laboratories performing LED-FM microscopy. A total of 96 presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis participants were culture positive for M. tuberculosis. The overall incremental sensitivity of Xpert over smear microscopy was 32.3 %; p 

A cross-sectional survey was performed in 24 systems of care providing antiretroviral medications in Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda to examine current practices in monitoring rates of treatment adherence and defaulting. Only 20 of 48 facilities reported routinely measuring individual patient adherence levels; only 12 measured rates of adherence for the clinic population. The rules for determining which patients were included in the calculation of rates were unclear. Fourteen different definitions of treatment defaulting were in use. Facilities routinely gather potentially useful data, but the frequency of doing so varied widely. Individual and program treatment adherence and defaulting are not routinely monitored; when done, the operational definitions and methods varied widely, making comparisons across programs unreliable. There is a pressing need to determine which measures are the most feasible and reliable to collect, the most useful for clinical counseling, and most informative for program management.

The community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme launched by the Government of Rwanda (GoR) reached 91% of the population in 2010, starting from 7% in 2003. Initially, all CBHI members paid the same fees, regardless of their personal income, and the poorest citizens faced challenges in paying premiums (almost US$1.50 per person). A mechanism was thus urgently needed to guarantee access to health care for the most vulnerable and promote equity among members. The GoR decided to introduce a stratification system based on the socioeconomic status of the population. Together with partners, including the Integrated Health Systems Strengthening Project (IHSSP), the GoR developed a national database that stratifies Rwandan citizens by income. To date, more than 10 million residents’ records, representing 96% of Rwanda’s population, have been entered into the database. This database helped identify the most vulnerable based on socioeconomic status (about 25% of the population). Identification of the poorest among the population has allowed an increase in CBHI funds due to identification of individuals who have a greater capacity to pay. The database thus improved the financial viability and management capacity of the CBHI scheme.

Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) bright-field microscopy is time-consuming, with poor sensitivity, even under optimal conditions. Introduction of Primo Star iLED fluorescent microscopy (FM) may improve TB case finding at referral hospitals in Rwanda. Laboratory technicians demonstrated high acceptance of iLED. The 100% concordance at both demonstration sites during the continuation phase shows technicians' rapid command of the new iLED microscope in a relatively short time. Additionally, fluorescent microscopy reduces the time necessary for examination by more than half. The high level of agreement between iLED and FM during implementation in both sites provides initial evidence for iLED to replace current methods.

Lessons learned from treating patients with HIV infection can inform care systems for other chronic conditions. For antiretroviral treatment, attending appointments on time correlates with medication adherence; however, HIV clinics in East Africa, where attendance rates vary widely, rarely include systems to schedule appointments or to track missed appointments or patient follow-up.


An East African survey showed that among the few health facilities that measured adherence to antiretroviral therapy, practices and definitions varied widely. We evaluated the feasibility of collecting routine data to standardize adherence measurement using a draft set of indicators.

Background Secondary infertility is a common, preventable but neglected reproductive health problem in resource-poor countries. This study examines the association of past sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV, bacterial vaginosis, and factors in the obstetric history with secondary infertility and their relative contributions to secondary infertility. Methods

From 2000 to 2010, Rwanda implemented comprehensive health sector reforms to strengthen the public health system, with the aim of reducing maternal and newborn deaths in line with Millennium Development Goal 5, among many other improvements in national health.

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