The aim of the present study was to indentify the epidemiological factors of drug-resistant (DR TB) patients in the northern part of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted of registered DR TB patients at two chest diseases hospitals. The present study demonstrated that males (68.9%) were more affected by DR TB than females (31.8%).This study suggested that sex, age, type of treatment, residence, education and smoking status were important factors for getting MDR TB. It is expected that this study can help government to take activities for controlling and prevent MDR TB disease.

We examined how different training modalities have been employed and adapted in 12 countries to meet country-specific needs by a global pharmaceutical systems strengthening program in collaboration with a country’s Ministry of Health and local stakeholders. Case-based learning, practice and feedback, and repetitive interventions such as post-training action plan, supportive supervision and mentoring approaches are effective, evidence-based training techniques. In Ethiopia and Bangladesh, over 94% of respondents indicated that they have improved or developed skills or competencies as a result of the program’s training activities. Supportive supervision structures and mentorship have been institutionalized with appropriate management structures. National authorities have been sensitized to secure funding from domestic resources or from Global Fund grants for post-training follow-up initiatives. The Pharmaceutical Leadership Development Program is an effective, case-based training modality that motivates staff to develop quality-improvement interventions and solve specific challenges. Peer-to-peer learning mechanisms rather than traditional didactic methods was a preferred intervention among high level government officials both within country and between countries.

In Bangladesh, fertility was high in the 1950s and declined to fewer than five births per woman in the early or mid-1990s like other developing countries. After that the level of fertility is stalled. The aim of this study is to assess the extent of unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in Bangladesh and to study the factors related to it.

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