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In the DRC, under-five, infant and neonatal mortality rates remain high with 158, 97, and 42 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively. As a consequence, close to half a million children die every year before their fifth birthday.

Nigeria is home to 17.5 million orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). According to the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development, one in every four children in Nigeria is considered vulnerable due to unmet needs for nutrition, education, shelter, care, or support. The Need for New Solutions

Nigeria is home to 17.5 million children who are considered vulnerable due to unmet needs for food, shelter, education, protection, or care With 3.4 million citizens living with HIV & AIDS, Nigeria has the second highest HIV burden in the world.

Nigeria is home to 17.5 million orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) who struggle daily to access food, shelter, education, protection, and care.

In Nigeria, as in most countries, women and girls assume the bulk of the caregiving burden for those infected with HIV and children left vulnerable or orphaned by AIDS. These responsibilities often prevent girls and women from obtaining an education and developing income-generating skills.

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs can greatly reduce the vertical transmission rate (VTR) of HIV, and Malawi is expanding PMTCT access by offering HIV-infected pregnant women life-long antiretroviral therapy (Option B+). There is currently no empirical data on the effectiveness of Malawian PMTCT programs. This study describes a surveillance approach to obtain population-based estimates of the VTR of infants

Abstract In 2001, Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health inherited a devastated health system and some of the worst health statistics in the world. The health system was rebuilt based on the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). This paper examines why the BPHS was needed, how it was developed, its content and the changes resulting from the rebuilding.

Abstract The Paris Declaration defined five components of aid effectiveness: ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and mutual accountability. Afghanistan, which has received a high level of donor aid for health since 2002, has seen significant improvements in health indicators, expanded access to health services and an increased range of services.

Abstract In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003.

In recent years, there has been a shift in how the international community is addressing the HIV epidemic. As more people are receiving antiretroviral therapy, we are seeing the benefits of reduced viral load on a population level. Fewer babies are being born HIV positive and prevalence rates are dropping in most countries with the highest HIV burdens.

Ethiopia’s Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) began integrating mother mentors with a Mother Support Group (MSG) into national HIV programing in 2005 to address the special needs of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women and their children.

This report reviews the role of mother mentors and their Mother Support Groups (MSGs) in supporting HIV-positive mothers to live healthy lives and use appropriate health services.

Strengthening health systems is the core of management Sciences for Health’s response to the HIV epidemic. We build the capacity of the public and private sector in more than 35 countries to prevent, treat, and manage HIV & AIDS.

This paper examines the possible relationship between Hb concentration and severity of anemia with individual and household characteristics of children aged 6-59 months in Nigeria; and explores possible geographical variations of these outcome variables. Spatial analyses reveal a distinct north-south divide in Hb concentration of the children analyzed. States in Northern Nigeria possess a higher risk of anemia. Other important risk factors include the household wealth index, sex of the child, whether or not the child had fever or malaria in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, and age under 24 months of age. There is a need for state-level implementation of programs that target vulnerable children.

BRICS’ leaders have an opportunity to pool capacity, technical expertise and financial resources to accelerate progress towards the 2020 goals for neglected tropical disease control and elimination. First, they can lead by example. Brazil, China, India and South Africa can help close the treatment gap by prioritizing neglected tropical diseases, scaling up national programmes and achieving domestic goals for control and elimination of the diseases relevant to their settings. Second, by sharing expertise each BRICS country can help other countries tackle neglected tropical diseases, through new partnerships. Third, BRICS can shape the policy agenda, increasing political commitment, mobilizing resources and implementing policies that support neglected tropical disease control and elimination on the international level.

A world where everyone has the opportunity for a healthy life—this is MSH’s vision, guiding our efforts to achieve lifesaving results by strengthening health systems. In the coming years, universal health coverage (UHC) will play a pivotal role in attaining this vision.

Key components to support local institutional and consumer markets are: supply chain, finance, clinical use, and consumer use. Key lessons learned: (1) Build supply and demand simultaneously. (2) Support a lead organization to drive the introduction process. (3) Plan for scale up from the start. (4) Profitability for the private sector is an absolute.

Bi-Annual Newsletter A publication of Health Commodities and Services Management Program Implemented by Management Sciences for Health

Bi-Annual Newsletter A PUBLICATION OF HEALTH COMMODITIES AND SERVICES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IMPLEMENTED BY MANAGEMENT SCIENCES FOR HEALTH

This study assessed the effects of facility-based interventions using existing resources to improve overall patient attendance and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at ART-providing facilities in Uganda. Patients’ adherence was improved with low-cost and easily implemented interventions using existing health facilities’ resources. We recommend that such interventions be considered for scale-up at national levels as measures to improve clinic attendance and ART adherence among patients in Uganda and other low-resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa.

Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname revealed diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. Data on malaria medicine quality and pharmaceutical management, generated in the context of the Amazon Malaria Initiative, were reviewed and discussed. Numerous substandard artemisinin-containing malaria medicines were identified in both countries, particularly in Guyana. The quality of malaria medicines and the availability and use of non-recommended treatments could have played a role in the diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives described in Guyana and Suriname.

Our objective in this study was to identify the missed opportunities for the integration of HIV care and family planning services and to inform future network strengthening. In two sub-cities of Addis Ababa, we identified each organization providing either HIV care or family planning services. We interviewed representatives of each of them about exchanges of clients with each of the others. With network analysis, we identified network characteristics in each sub-city network, such as referral density and centrality; and gaps in the referral patterns. Representatives from the networks confirmed the results reflected their experience and expressed an interest in establishing more links between organizations. Because of organizations not working together, women in the two sub-cities were at risk of not receiving needed family planning or HIV care services. Facilitating referrals among a few organizations that are most often working in isolation could remedy the problem, but the overall referral densities suggests that improved connections throughout might benefit conditions in addition to HIV and family planning that need service integration.

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