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This report documents the lessons learned from the regional meeting on “Using Mobile Technology to Improve Family Planning and Health Programs” held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from November 12-16, 2012.

All medicines carry some risk of adverse events; although certain risks are identified when medicines are tested during clinical trials, others aren’t recognized until after the medicine is on the market and has been used in “real world” settings.

The Abuja Declaration (WHO 2011), which reported on investments in health, noted that funding targets are being missed, both domestically and in terms of international assistance.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide; in 2008, it accounted for approximately 7.6 million deaths (13 percent of all causes of death). More than 70 percent of all cancer deaths occurred in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs).

To be better leaders, we must be better people, take actions that bring us closer to our communities, and use the best management tools and strategies available. The Guide for Training Community Leaders to Improve Leadership and Management Practices is designed for individuals, teams of managers, or institutions from the public health sector and other sectors of civil society that work a

A major strategy for preventing transmission of HIV and other STIs is the consistent use of condoms during sexual intercourse. Condom use among youths is particularly important to reduce the number of new cases and the national prevalence. Although a number of studies have established an association between condom use at one’s sexual debut and future condom use, few studies have explored this association over time, and whether the results are generalizable across multiple locations. This multi time point, multi district study assesses the relationship between sexual debut and condom use and consistent use of condoms thereafter. Uganda has used Lot Quality Assurance Sampling surveys since 2003 to monitor district level HIV programs and improve access to HIV health services. This study includes 4518 sexually active youths interviewed at five time points (2003–2010) in up to 23 districts located across Uganda. Using logistic regression, we measured the association of condom use at first sexual intercourse on recent condom usage, controlling for several factors including: age, sex, education, marital status, age at first intercourse, geographical location, and survey year. The odds of condom use at last intercourse, using a condom at last intercourse with a non-regular partner, and consistently using a condom are, respectively, 9.63 (95%WaldCI = 8.03–11.56), 3.48 (95%WaldCI = 2.27–5.33), and 11.12 (95%WaldCI = 8.95–13.81) times more likely for those individuals using condoms during their sexual debut. The results suggest that HIV prevention programs should encourage condom use among youth during sexual debut. Success with this outcome may have a lasting influence on preventing HIV and other STIs later in life.

Abstract The Philippines is one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden countries in the world with nationwide coverage of directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) achieved in 2003. This study reports on the National TB Control Programme (NTP) surveillance data for the period 2003 to 2011.

South Sudan has borne the brunt of years of chronic warfare and probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. This nationally representative survey aimed to provide data on malaria indicators at household level across the country. The observed high malaria prevalence could be due to low levels of coverage and utilization of interventions coupled with low knowledge levels. Therefore, access and utilization of malaria control tools should be increased through scaling up coverage and improving behaviour change communication.

Effective surveillance systems are required to track malaria testing and treatment practices. A 26-week study “SMS for Life” was piloted in five rural districts of Kenya to examine whether SMS reported surveillance data could ensure real-time visibility of accurate data and their use by district managers to impact on malaria case-management. The study demonstrated the feasibility of using simple mobile phone text messages to transmit timely surveillance data from peripheral health facilities to higher levels. However, accuracy of data reported was suboptimal. Future work should focus on improving quality of SMS reported surveillance data.

Abstract An increasing number of countries are exploring the introduction or expansion of autonomous hospitals as one of the numerous health reforms they are introducing to their health system. Hospital autonomy is one of the forms of decentralization that is focused on a specific institution rather than on a political unit.

Abstract Objective To assess the sustainability, robustness and economic advantages of high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) for quality control of pharmaceutical products. Method We compared three laboratories where three lots of cotrimoxazole tablets were assessed using different techniques for quantifying the active ingredient.

Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria.

Monitoring implementation of the ‘‘test and treat’’ case-management policy for malaria is an important component of all malaria control programmes in Africa. Unfortunately, routine information systems are commonly deficient to provide necessary information. Using health facility surveys we monitored health systems readiness and malaria case management practices prior to and following implementation of the 2010 ‘‘test and treat’’ policy in Kenya. Between 2010 and 2013 six national, cross-sectional, health facility surveys were undertaken. Major improvements in the implementation of the ‘‘test and treat’’ policy were observed. Some gaps towards universal targets still remained. Other countries facing similar needs and challenges may consider health facility surveys to monitor malaria case-management.

To better meet women's emergency contraceptive needs and to contribute to the limited knowledge base regarding this method in Africa, this study examines data from a sample of EC users drawn from a large, representative household survey that included sexually experienced women in urban Kenya and Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses reveal greater knowledge of EC among these urban women than was reported in other nationally representative surveys. Recent users of EC were more likely to be in their 20s, unmarried, and more highly educated than never users or ever users of EC in both countries. Results contradict public perceptions of EC users as young adolescents and indicate the importance of strengthening EC provision in Africa, including targeting information and services to unmarried women and supporting private pharmacies in delivering quality services.

Final Report of the Rwanda HIV/Performance-Based financing Project

The Govern4Health App was created by Management Sciences for Health to provide health leaders basic information on four essential practices of good governance: Cultivating accountability Engaging stakeholders Setting shared direction Stewarding resources

This report has been jointly issued by Human Rights Watch and the Safeguarding Health in Conflict coalition. Management Sciences for Health is a Steering Committee Member of the coalition. 

The shortage of skilled birth attendants has been a key factor in the high maternal and newborn mortality in Afghanistan. Efforts to strengthen pre-service midwifery education in Afghanistan have increased the number of midwives from 467 in 2002 to 2954 in 2010. We analyzed the costs and graduate performance outcomes of the two types of pre-service midwifery education programs in Afghanistan that were either established or strengthened between 2002 and 2010 to guide future program implementation and share lessons learned. CME graduates achieved an overall mean competency score of 63.2% on the clinical competency assessment, compared to 57.3% for IHS graduates. Reproductive health activities accounted for 76% of midwives' time over an average of three months. Approximately 1% of childbirths required referral or resulted in maternal death. On the basis of known costs for the programs, the estimated cost of graduating a class with 25 students averaged US$298,939, or US$10,784 per graduate.

This quarterly bulletin provides information on the activities of the Integrated Health Systems Strengthening Project (IHSSP).

We examined the spatial pattern and risk factors of co-morbidity of malaria and non-malarial febrile illness among children aged 6-59 months in Nigeria. Using data from the 2010 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey, we considered the co-morbidity of malaria and non-malarial febrile illness among the children as multicategorical and selected a mixed multinomial logit model capable of incorporating covariates of different types. Inference was Bayesian, based on multicategorical linear mixed-model representation. We found that the risk of co-morbidity of malaria and non-malarial febrile illness increases as a child advances in age while the risk of non-malarial fever reduces after about 32 months of age. Area of residence (urban or rural), wealth index and type of roofing material used in the dwelling are other important risk factors for the co-morbidity found in this study. Further, children from four of Nigeria's 37 states are at high risk of malaria. Disease preventive measures need to be intensified, with more focus on rural areas and the poor. Campaigns for use of insecticide-treated bed nets need be more aggressive in all Nigerian states.

This compendium is for the use of national TB program staff in high burden settings who are trying to identify strategies to reach at-risk and vulnerable communities more effectively it contains very summarized descriptions of over 120 approaches to reach and serve at-risk and vulnerable populations, and links to over 650 tools and reference materials.

Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax Under section 501(c), 527, or 4947(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code  

Study Tour Summary Document: February 14–23, 2014  Management Sciences for Health (MSH) and the LIVESTRONG Foundation (LIVESTRONG) sponsored a delegation of US Senate staffers, policy experts, and researchers to Uganda and Rwanda to examine the key elements of the countries’ health systems, with a particular focus on how the countries are addressing non-communicable diseases

In the DRC, under-five, infant and neonatal mortality rates remain high with 158, 97, and 42 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively. As a consequence, close to half a million children die every year before their fifth birthday.

Nigeria is home to 17.5 million orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). According to the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development, one in every four children in Nigeria is considered vulnerable due to unmet needs for nutrition, education, shelter, care, or support. The Need for New Solutions

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