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Prepared by the USAID-funded AIDSTAR-Two project, this situational overview provides a detailed analysis of the response to the epidemic by associations and support groups of people living with HIV in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

This technical brief developed by the AIDSTAR-Two project presents a framework that offers a simplified and systematic approach to organizational capacity building that most local implementers, especially those that provide HIV and AIDS services, can draw from to better fulfill or expand their mandates.

The NGO Communications Guide is designed to give those working in civil society organizations (CSOs) and other non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the areas of HIV and AIDS practical knowledge and tools to help them do two very specific things: One, learn to better tell the story of the work that they do; and two, develop an organizational communications plan.

In April, 2013, MSH’s TB CARE I team held an international workshop in Indonesia to share experiences on sustainable financing for TB, HIV/AIDS, and malaria control programs. Facilitators and participants attended from China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

Africa is the fastest growing continent in the world— with a projected average economic growth rate of 6 percent from 2013-2015. Health is becoming increasingly important as economies grow. This brief explores the relationship between health, economic development and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa by reviewing available evidence taken from published research and data.

Because of the uncertainties and questions about health development in fragile and conflict-affected states, home to one-sixth of the world’s population, including whether and how it can advance state legitimacy or security, the United States Institute of Peace convened a two-day conference in June 2011—“Postconflict and Fragile States: Challenges for the Next Decade”&mdash

Summary Despite the global initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, 210,000 new pediatric infections were added worldwide in 2012 to the existing pool of 3.4 million children living with the virus.

Lessons learned from treating patients with HIV infection can inform care systems for other chronic conditions. For antiretroviral treatment, attending appointments on time correlates with medication adherence; however, HIV clinics in East Africa, where attendance rates vary widely, rarely include systems to schedule appointments or to track missed appointments or patient follow-up.

Achieving high rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings comprises serious, but different, challenges in both the first months of treatment and during the life-long maintenance phase. We measured the impact of a health system-oriented, facility-based intervention to improve clinic attendance and patient adherence. We conducted the study in 12 rural district hospitals (6 intervention, 6 control) in Kenya and randomly selected 1,894 adult patients over 18 years of age in two cohorts. Among experienced patients, the percentage attending the clinic on or before a scheduled appointment increased in both level and trend (increase per month) following the intervention, as did the level and trend of those keeping appointments within three days.

The aim of this study was to assess predictors of mortality among TB-HIV co-infected patients being treated for TB in Northwest Ethiopia. An institution-based retrospective cohort study was conducted between April, 2009 and January, 2012. Despite the availability of free ART from health institutions in Northwest Ethiopia, mortality was high among TB-HIV co-infected patients, and strongly associated with the absence of ART during TB treatment. In addition cotrimoxazole prophylactic therapy remained important factor in reduction of mortality during TB treatment. The study also noted importance of early ART even at higher CD4 counts.

Integrated community case management (iCCM) has proven to be an effective strategy for expanding the provision of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria services and has been accepted as a key approach to meet Millennium Development Goal 4 on reducing child mortality by international donors and developing countries.

Integrated community case management (iCCM) has proven to be an effective strategy for expanding the treatment of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria, which are the leading causes of child mortality and result in nearly 44% of deaths worldwide in children under five years old. This report describes the results of the testing in Senegal.

This study, conducted in five rural districts in Afghanistan, used qualitative methods to explore traditional practices of women, families and communities related to maternal and newborn care, and sociocultural and health system issues that create access barriers. The traditional practices discussed include delayed bathing of mothers and delayed breastfeeding of infants, seclusion of women after childbirth, restricted maternal diet, and use of traditional home remedies and self-medication instead of care in health facilities to treat maternal and newborn conditions. This study also looked at community support structures, transportation and care-seeking behaviour for maternal and newborn problems which create access barriers. Sociocultural barriers to better maternal-newborn health include shame about utilisation of maternal and neonatal services, women's inability to seek care without being accompanied by a male relative, and care-seeking from mullahs for serious health concerns. This study also found a high level of post-partum depression. Targeted and more effective behaviour-change communication programmes are needed. This study presents a set of behaviour-change messages to reduce maternal and newborn mortality associated with births occurring at home in rural communities. This study recommends using religious leaders, trained health workers, family health action groups and radio to disseminate these messages.

On November 12, 2009, Uganda’s Honorable Minister of Health, Dr.

A guide to evaluate whether health information products and services meet the requirements needed to make them effective, used, and adapted by health care practitioners and policymakers in the field.

Background: Worldwide, there were 650,000 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases in 2010, and in 2008 the World Health Organization estimated that 150,000 deaths occurred annually due to MDR-TB. Ethiopia is 15th among the 27 MDR-TB high-burden countries.

Increasing coverage of isoniazid preventive therapy and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy reduced risk of TB among HIV patients who started treatment. All people living with HIV should be screened for TB, but for patients who have advanced disease (WHO clinical stage III/IV, bedridden, and with hemoglobin level of 10 mg/dl), intensified screening is highly recommended during treatment follow-up.

A poster presented at the Union World Conference on Lung Health 2012 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

Tuberculosis has been affecting humans since prehistoric times and the key to TB control may be just as old: people themselves. Putting people at the center of TB control efforts—building their capacity to manage TB efficiently and reaching those who are most vulnerable to TB—can make all the difference.

Performance-based financing is increasingly being applied in a variety of contexts, with the expectation that it can improve the performance of health systems. However, while there is a growing literature on implementation issues and effects on outputs, there has been relatively little focus on interactions between PBF and health systems and how these should be studied. This paper aims to contribute to filling that gap by developing a framework for assessing the interactions between PBF and health systems, focusing on low and middle income countries. In doing so, it elaborates a general framework for monitoring and evaluating health system reforms in general.

The Republic of South Sudan has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak.

The cost of scaling up the TB Control Program in Indonesia The economic burden of tuberculosis in Indonesia Policy options and levers for financing TB services in Indonesia Lessons learned from a global approach to strengthening monitoring and evaluation efforts in national TB programs

Guide for Participants of the 3rd International Conference On Family Planning in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, NOV 12–15, 2013 

The HRH Action Framework is designed to assist governments and health managers to develop and implement strategies to achieve an effective and sustainable health workforce. By using a comprehensive approach, the Framework will help you address staff shortages, uneven distribution of staff, gaps in skills and competencies, low retention and poor motivation, among other challenges.

The Human Resources for Health Action Framework (HAF) was developed by representatives of multilateral and bilateral agencies, donors, partner countries, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the academic community at a technical consultation in Washington, DC, on December 14–15, 2005. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S.

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