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This systematic review of 58 observational studies identified hypothetical causal mechanisms explaining the effects of short and long intervals between pregnancies on maternal, perinatal, infant, and child health, and critically examined the scientific evidence for each causal mechanism hypothesized.

Purpose of review: This review focuses on current status, progress, challenges and opportunities in global pharmacovigilance for HIV/AIDS treatment.

Objective: The objective of this review is to produce evidence on the prevalence and trends in the availability of substandard and counterfeit antimicrobials in the global market and its consequences on key public health interventions in developing countries.

In 2004, Malawi began scaling up its national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. Because of limited treatment options, population-level surveillance of acquired human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) is critical to ensuring long-term treatment success. The World Health Organization target for clinic-level HIVDR prevention at 12 months after ART initiation is ≥70%.

Purpose The purpose of the Community Health Services Costing Tool is to help managers and planners estimate the costs of providing health services at the community level. It can be used for individual community services, packages of services, or for all community services. It can be used to calculate the current costs and/or the costs of starting a new program or scaling up an existing one. 

TB is a major problem in many countries and consumes significant external and domestic resources.

Tuberculosis is a major cause of adult deaths and places a huge social and financial burden on the people who have the disease, as well as on their families and communities. The economic burden of TB can be a significant drain on a society’s resources and having estimates of the costs is very useful when advocating for funding from governments and/or donors.

Purpose The results and analysis will provide evidence-based data for implementing, scaling-up, and maintaining iCCM activities that will be invaluable for successful funding advocacy, for conducting feasibility/sustainability studies, for assessment of cost-effectiveness, and for planning financing strategies and mechanisms. Description

Purpose The Cost and Staffing Projection Tool is used to estimate the costs of achieving health worker staffing targets, comprising salaries and pre-service training costs. Description

As part of a collaborative effort by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (USAID/BASICS) Project, MSH conducted a comprehensive analysis of child survival, maternal, newborn and child health, primary health care, and hospital costs in Cambodia.

Multi-Drug Resistant TB is a major problem in many countries. Cases can be difficult to find and hard and expensive to treat. This tool provides a simple way for managers to compare the cost-effectiveness of different diagnostic and treatment strategies (e.g. hospitalized versus ambulatory treatment systems). 

Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) TB patients incur significant costs for seeking and undergoing treatment. It is important to understand these costs to develop appropriate levels of social protection to prevent people from deciding not to seek diagnosis or discontinuing treatment, or from suffering economic hardship as a result of treatment. 

Ms. Doris Ngozi Brendan, the Akwa Ibom State Program Manager, recently wrote a news article describing CUBS’ work to economically empower caregivers of vulnerable children in Nigeria.  This article was published on the Africare website. Africare is one of MSH’s subcontract partners on the CUBS project.

MSH believes that strong health systems are the best way to achieve health for all. In this report, we offer a glimpse of universal health coverage (UHC) as a framework for maximizing health impact.

Treatment as Prevention (TasP) describes HIV prevention methods that use antiretroviral therapy (ART) in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons to decrease the risk of HIV transmission.

Positive health, dignity and prevention (PHDP) engages people who know they are living with HIV in prevention. It involves supporting HIV-positive people to learn and practice how to live healthily and minimize the risks of spreading the virus to others.

This technical brief summarizes the latest evidence on PMTCT of HIV in the Southern African region. It presents the current WHO guidance on antiretroviral use in pregnant HIV-positive women: Options A, B and B+. Option B+ is a new development, emerging from experiences in Malawi, which was the focus of much attention at the recent International AIDS Conference.

This technical brief makes the case for understanding behavior change approaches as necessary but insufficient methods of HIV prevention. The document describes how behavior change interventions may be more effective when they are used as part of a  combination prevention approach that is shaped by a social-ecological perspective on HIV prevention.

In 2007, WHO/UNAIDS recommended that male circumcision be considered an important new intervention for HIV prevention, and that countries with a high HIV prevalence, low rates of male circumcision, and heterosexual epidemics should consider scaling up male circumcision as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package.

There is growing awareness that well led and managed global health solutions are required to achieve effective and sustainable health programs, especially at the scale needed to attain Millennium Development Goals and other global targets. This compendium of case studies reviews the current evidence of the impact of leadership and management on health.

We need a dramatic change in thinking—and action from donors, policymakers, and program managers in the public, private, and nongovernmental (NGO) sectors—to focus on strengthening health systems in the countries most affected by HIV & AIDS. To meet the Millennium Development Goal of reversing the epidemic by 2015, we must change how we design and deliver services.

These guidelines provide standards for HIV prevention program implementation for non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations, against which services provided to the target populations can be monitored and evaluated to ensure quality and client satisfaction.

Management Sciences for Health’s Building Local Capacity for Delivery of HIV Services in Southern Africa Project (BLC) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have written a series of technical briefs on priority HIV prevention topics.

Prepared by the AIDSTAR-Two project, this report documents the main changes resulting from a regional prevention program designed to meet the sexual health and HIV prevention needs of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia. As part of this program, the “Most Significant Change” approach was used understand the changes generated by the program.

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