The global partnership fighting malaria has witnessed much success in the last 20 years. Malaria is no longer the leading cause of illness and death among children under ve, yet multiple challenges remain in the ght. An estimated 429,000 deaths occurred in 2015 alone, 303,000 in children under ve. Lack of community awareness about prevention and treatment, a disproportionate impact on women and children, the emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites, and the limited capacity of public and private institutions to use resources e ectively make the ght against malaria di cult. Because the challenges and consequences of malaria are complex and far-reaching for individuals, communities, and health organizations, multiple paths to prevention and treatment must be followed.