Kabul is the largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of over 3 million people. The population density leads to overcrowding and strains health systems and infrastructure. In a country with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, TB service delivery has been a particular challenge. In 2009, only 22 of the 106 existing public and private health facilities in Kabul provided partial TB services. TB case detection was only 26 percent, and the treatment success rate was 49 percent. All TB indicators for the city consistently fell below national targets.