A cross-sectional survey was performed in 24 systems of care providing antiretroviral medications in Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda to examine current practices in monitoring rates of treatment adherence and defaulting. Only 20 of 48 facilities reported routinely measuring individual patient adherence levels; only 12 measured rates of adherence for the clinic population. The rules for determining which patients were included in the calculation of rates were unclear. Fourteen different definitions of treatment defaulting were in use. Facilities routinely gather potentially useful data, but the frequency of doing so varied widely. Individual and program treatment adherence and defaulting are not routinely monitored; when done, the operational definitions and methods varied widely, making comparisons across programs unreliable. There is a pressing need to determine which measures are the most feasible and reliable to collect, the most useful for clinical counseling, and most informative for program management.

This paper explores HIV patients’ adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited contexts in Uganda and Ethiopia, where ART is provided free of charge. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors, and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. To grant patients a fair choice to successfully adhere to ART, transport costs to ART facilities need to be reduced. This implies providing patients with drugs for longer periods of time and arranging for better laboratory services, thus not necessitating frequent revisits. Services ought to be brought closer to patients and peripheral, community-based healthworkers used for drug distribution. There is a need for training providers and peer counselors, in communication skills and adherence counseling.

The objective of this survey was to develop an indicator-based tool for systematic assessment and reporting of good pharmacy practice (GPP). The tool comprises a) a set of indicators, b) an indicator and survey manual, c) a data collection sheet, and d) Microsoft Excel based data collection and analysis tool. We developed a set of 34 pharmacy practice (PP) indicators using an iterative process to test their functionality in various pharmacy practice settings in Ethiopia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The indicator-based survey assessed five components of PP: system, storage, services, dispensing and rational drug use. The new GPP indicator-based assessment tool proved to be an easily applicable tool for uniform assessments of pharmacy practices and identification of problem areas. It allows for both intra- and inter-country comparison and for self-assessment. However, the indicators need to be further developed to test their applicability in developed countries.

Early detection and treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an urgent global priority. Identifying and tracing close contacts of patients with MDR-TB could be a feasible strategy to achieve this goal. However, there is limited experience with contact tracing among patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis both globally and in Ethiopia. Here we present findings on the extent of screening symptomatic contacts and its yield in a tetrtiary hospital in a major urban setting in Ethiopia. Symptomatic household contacts were identified in 29 (5.7%) of 508 index cases treated at the hospital. There were a total of 155 family members in the households traced of whom 16 (10%) had confirmed MDR-TB. At least 1 confirmed MDR-TB case was identified in 15 (51.7%) of the 29 traced households. Tracing symptomatic contacts of MDR-TB cases could be a high yield strategy for early detection and treatment of MDR-TB cases in the community. The approach should be promoted for wider adoption and dissemination.

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated risk factors in West Armachiho and Metema districts of North Gondar. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 1 and June 25, 2014. A total of 124 consecutive smear-positive pulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Socio-demographic and possible risk factor data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Drug susceptibility testing was first performed for rifampicin using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For those rifampicin resistant strains, drug susceptibility testing was performed for both isoniazid and rifampicin to identify MDR-TB. Of 124 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients, 117 (94.4 %) were susceptible to rifampicin, while 7 (5.7 %) were confirmed to be resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. History of previous treatment was significantly associated with MDR-TB. Maximizing early case detection and treatment, strengthening TB infection control activities and proper implementation of DOTS are recommended to reduce the burden of MDR-TB.

Abstract Family caregivers play a critical role in caring for children living with HIV, however, there is little knowledge about their experiences. The aim of this study was to illuminate the family caregivers' lived experiences of caring for a child when he or she has been diagnosed with HIV and enrolled to antiretroviral treatment. Qualitative interviews with 21 family caregivers of 21 children diagnosed with HIV were analyzed using an inductive design with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The caregivers' experience were articulated in 5 subthemes under the main theme of "Surviving overwhelming challenges": "Committed care-giving," "Breaking the family life," "Caring burdens," "Confronting conflicts," and "Living with worry." Despite the difficult situation the family caregivers experienced with extensive worry, caring burdens, and disrupted family and social networks, they were committed caregivers. They were empowered by their belief in God but also by their strong belief in the child's treatment and support from healthcare workers. The healthcare system needs to consider possible ways to support the family caregivers during child's HIV diagnosis and treatment initiation as part of a continuum of care.

In 2011, Ethiopia introduced a strategy of symptomatic tuberculosis (TB) screening for patients attending out-patient services to increase identification of presumptive TB. We assessed implementation and factors affecting symptomatic TB screening in 86 health centres in the Amhara Region. A quarter (28%) of the health centres in this study had poor symptomatic TB screening practices in the out-patient services. Strengthening multidisciplinary teams and expanding partner support are recommended to improve TB screening practices in Ethiopia.  

The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and nature of adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized children at a teaching hospital in Ethiopia. We studied 600 children hospitalized at Jimma University Specialized Hospital between 1 February and 1 May 2011. Fifty-eight ADEs were identified, with an incidence of 9.2 per 100 admissions, 1.7 per 1000 medication doses and 9.4 per 1000 patient-days. One-third of ADEs were preventable; 91% caused temporary harms and 9% resulted in permanent harm/death. A strategy to prevent ADEs, including education of nurses and physicians, is of paramount importance.

We sought to reduce the service needs of people living with HIV by increasing referral coordination for HIV and family planning, measured as network density, with an organizational network approach. We conducted organizational network analysis on two networks in sub-cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. There were 25 organizations in one sub-city network and 26 in the other. This quasi experiment demonstrated that (1) an organizational network analysis can inform an intervention, (2) a modest network strengthening intervention can enhance client referrals, (3) improvement in client referrals was accompanied by a decrease in patient-reported unmet needs and (4) a series of network analyses can be a useful evaluation tool.

To determine the yield of a household contact investigation for tuberculosis (TB) under routine programme conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the yield of a household contact investigation for tuberculosis (TB) under routine programme conditions.Between April 2013 and March 2014, TB clinic officers in Amhara and Oromia regions, Ethiopia, conducted symptom-based screening for household contacts of 6,015 smear-positive TB (SS+ TB) index cases. We calculated the yield in terms of number needed to screen (NNS) and number needed to test (NNT). The NNS to detect a TB case all forms and SS+ TB was respectively 40 and 132. The NNT to diagnose a TB case all forms and SS+ TB was respectively 2.4 and 8. The yield of the household contact investigation was over 10 times higher than the estimated prevalence in the general population; household contact investigations can serve as an entry point for childhood TB care.


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