disease diagnosis

This study compared the yield of TB among contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) index cases with that of drug-sensitive TB (DS-TB) index cases in a program setting. The yield of TB among contacts of MDR-TB and DS-TB using GeneXpert was high as compared to population-level prevalence. The likelihood of diagnosing RR (Rifampicin Resistant)-TB among contacts of MDR-TB index cases is higher in comparison with contacts of DS-TB index cases. The use of GeneXpert in DS TB contact investigation has an added advantage of diagnosing RR cases in contrast to using the nationally recommended AFB microscopy for DS TB contact investigation.

In low income countries, Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smear microscopy is the only cost-effective tool for diagnosis and monitoring of patients on treatment for tuberculosis.The objective of this study was to investigate the role of AFB microscopy refresher training on the performance of laboratory professionals in Ethiopia. Training has improved theoretical and practical performance of laboratory professionals. Pre-placement and continuous training irrespective of lab professionals' qualifications and service year and sustainable external quality assessment are highly recommended to ensure quality of AFB microscopy services.

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